Absolute and relative truth. The difference of relative truth from absolute
Throughout their existence, people try to answer many questions about the structure and organization of our world. Scientists are constantly making new discoveries, and every day approach the truth, solving the secrets of the universe. What is absolute and relative truth? How do they differ? Will people ever achieve absolute truth in the theory of knowledge?
The concept and criteria of truth
Scientists have given many definitions of truth in various fields of science. Thus, in philosophy, this concept is interpreted as the correspondence of the image of an object formed by the human consciousness to its real existence, regardless of our thinking.
In logic, truth is understood as judgments and conclusions that are sufficiently complete and correct.They must be free from contradictions and inconsistencies.
In the exact sciences, the essence of truth is interpreted as the goal of scientific knowledge, as well as the coincidence of knowledge with real knowledge. It is of great value, allows you to solve practical and theoretical problems, to substantiate and confirm the findings.
The problem of what is considered true and what is not, arose as long as the concept itself. The main criteria of truth are considered the opportunity to confirm the theory in a practical way. This may be a logical proof, experience or experiment. This criterion, of course, cannot be an absolute guarantee of the truth of a theory, since practice is tied to a specific historical period and is improved and transformed over time.
Absolute Truth. Examples and signs
In philosophy, absolute truth is understood as a certain knowledge about our world, which cannot be disproved or disputed. It is exhaustive and the only true. Absolute truth can be established only by experience or with the help of theoretical substantiation and evidence.It must necessarily comply with the world around us.
Very often, the concept of absolute truth is confused with eternal truths. Examples of the latter: a dog - an animal, the sky is blue, the birds can fly. Eternal truths are applicable only to a specific fact. For complex systems, as well as for knowledge of the world as a whole, they are not suitable.
Is there an absolute truth?
Scientists are debating about the nature of truth since the inception of philosophy. There are several opinions in science about whether absolute and relative truth exist.
According to one of them, everything in our world is relative and depends on the perception of reality by each specific person. The absolute truth is never attainable, because mankind cannot exactly know all the secrets of the universe. First of all, this is due to the limited capabilities of our consciousness, as well as the insufficient development of the level of science and technology.
From the standpoint of other philosophers, on the contrary, everything is absolute. However, this does not apply to the knowledge of the structure of the world as a whole, but to concrete facts. For example, theorems and axioms proven by scientists are considered to be absolute truth, but they do not provide answers to all questions of humanity.
Most philosophers hold such a view that absolute truth is formed from a multitude of relative ones. An example of such a situation is when over time a certain scientific fact is gradually improved and supplemented by new knowledge. At present, it is impossible to achieve absolute truth in the matter of exploring our world. However, it is likely that someday the moment will come when the progress of mankind will reach such a level that all relative knowledge is summed up and form a complete picture revealing all the secrets of our Universe.
Due to the fact that a person is limited in the methods and forms of cognition, he can not always get complete information about things that interest him. The meaning of relative truth is that it is incomplete, approximate, requiring clarification of people's knowledge about a particular object. In the process of evolution, new methods of research, as well as more modern instruments for measuring and computing, are becoming available to man. It is precisely in the accuracy of knowledge that the main difference between relative truth and absolute truth lies.
Truth relative exists in a specific time period.It depends on the place and period in which knowledge is obtained, historical conditions and other factors that may affect the accuracy of the result. Also, relative truth is determined by the perception of reality by a specific person conducting research.
Examples of relative truth
As an example of relative truth, depending on the location of the subject, we can cite the following fact: a person claims that it is cold outside. For him, this is the truth, seemingly absolute. But people in another part of the planet are hot at this time. Consequently, saying that it’s cold outside the window, it means only a specific place, which means that this truth is relative.
From the point of view of human perception of reality, you can also give an example of the weather. The same air temperature by different people can be transported and felt differently. Someone will say that +10 degrees is cold, but for someone it's quite warm weather.
Over time, the relative truth is gradually transformed and supplemented. For example, a few centuries ago, tuberculosis was considered an incurable disease, and people infected with it were doomed.At that time, the mortality of this disease was not questioned. Now, humanity has learned to fight tuberculosis and completely cure the sick. Thus, with the development of science and the change of historical epoch, ideas about the absoluteness and relativity of truth in this issue changed.
The concept of objective truth
For any science, it is important to obtain data that reliably reflect reality. Objective truth means knowledge that does not depend on the will, will and other personal characteristics of a person. They are stated and recorded without the influence of the opinion of the research subject on the result obtained.
Objective and absolute truth is not the same thing. These concepts are completely unrelated to each other. Both absolute and relative truth can be objective. Even incomplete, not fully proven knowledge can be objective in the event that they are obtained in compliance with all the necessary conditions.
Many people believe in various signs and signs. However, support from the majority does not mean objectivity of knowledge.Human superstitions do not have scientific evidence, and therefore, they are a subjective truth. The usefulness and significance of information, practical applicability and other interests of people cannot act as a criterion for objectivity.
Subjective truth is the personal opinion of a person about a particular situation that does not have weighty evidence. We all heard the expression "Everyone has their own truth." That it relates to the full to the subjective truth.
Falsehood and delusion as opposed to truth.
Anything that is not true is considered false. Absolute and relative truth are opposites for lies and delusions, meaning the inconsistency of the reality of some knowledge or beliefs of man.
The distinction between delusion and lies lies in the intentionality and awareness of their application. If a person, knowingly knowing that he is wrong, proves to everyone his point of view, he tells a lie. If someone sincerely believes his opinion is true, but in fact it is not, then he is simply mistaken.
Thus, only in the fight against falsehood and delusion can absolute truth be achieved.Examples of such situations in history are ubiquitous. So, approaching the solution of the mystery of the device of our Universe, scientists have dismissed various versions, which in antiquity were considered absolutely true, but in fact turned out to be a delusion.
Philosophical truth. Its development in dynamics
By modern scholars, truth is understood to mean a continuous dynamic process on the path to absolute knowledge. At the same time at the moment, in a broad sense, the truth should be objective and relative. The main problem is the ability to distinguish it from delusion.
Despite the sharp leap of mankind in development over the last century, our methods of knowledge are still quite primitive, not allowing people to come closer to absolute truth. However, consistently moving towards the goal, on time and completely screening out errors, perhaps, someday we will be able to learn all the secrets of our Universe.