Agricultural land: structure, purpose, types
All lands are divided into plots - non-agricultural and agricultural land. Each of them has a purpose, depending on which it is used. The scope of exploitation of land is determined by natural, natural or acquired properties. The qualitative state of the land can have significant differences, which is caused by the mechanical composition and type of soil, the level of their erosion and salinity, stonyness and cultivation.
Non-agricultural and agricultural land
Non-agricultural land is land that is unsuitable for agricultural use. These include ravines and beams, areas on which forests and shrubs are located, swamps and water sources, as well as lands occupied by various objects, or those through which roads, runs, etc. are laid.Perspective non-agricultural land may be involved in agricultural circulation after the necessary complex of works: land reclamation (irrigation, drainage or desalinization), clearing of low forest and bushes, cutting hummocks and cleaning stones. Areas with shrubs and low forests that do not have water protection value, as well as gully complexes, marshes and sodic lands are suitable for the cultivation.
Agricultural land is land on which economic activity is systematically carried out aimed at obtaining food, feed and raw materials. In such areas are arable land, perennial plantations, deposits, pastures and hayfields. Below are the main types of agricultural land. Each of them has its own quality characteristics and value.
These are land plots of strategic purpose. Agricultural land of this type is characterized by the most fertile soils, optimal conditions of moisture and drainage. They are systematically processed and used for sowing various crops, perennial grasses, as well as for clean couples.
Agricultural land planted with preliminary crops (not more than two years old), plowed up with the purpose of cardinal improvements, and inter-row orchards, which are used for sowing, do not belong to arable land.
These lands also have fertile soil, but are used for growing cultivated plants: trees, shrubs and perennial grasses. Of these, yields of fruit, berry, medicinal or technical products are obtained. Such agricultural land is used for gardens, fruit nurseries, berry and plantations (tea, mulberry, flower, essential oil, etc.).
This category includes land previously used for arable land, but then for more than a year, starting from the autumn period, agricultural crops have not been sown on them, and they have not been prepared for steam. The deposits are secondary (recovery) succession.
For several years, the former arable lands are overgrown with various plants, gradually losing the soil moisture, which is why they are close in their characteristics to the steppe virgin lands. The accumulation of organic matter and the formation of turf occur on the fallow lands, the soil structure becomes more dense and rigid.
The use of agricultural land in the fallow form of agriculture provides for the deliberate abandonment of part of arable land located in the steppe areas under temporary deposits. This method helps to restore the fertility of the land and overcome weeds.
These lands are systematically used for mowing. Depending on the quality characteristics and structure of agricultural land of this type, they are dry, flood, clean, radical improvement, swampy, zakocharennye, forested and zaskotarennymi in varying degrees.
This category includes territories that are intended and systematically used for grazing animals. This also includes lands that are not deposits and hayfields, not used for grazing but suitable for this.
There are pastures cultural, marshy, dry valley, radical improvement, for distant-pasture cattle breeding, flooded, knocked down, zakocharenny, forested and zakostarenny to a certain extent.
The land plots of fundamental improvement are the territories where the turf was destroyed and the subsequent zaluzheniye was held, as a result of which a new herbage was formed.On the slopes with increased erosion hazard and in river floodplains, tinning is carried out without destroying the sod layer.
Cultivated pastures include lands that have undergone fundamental or surface improvement. They have a good herbage, they are systematically looked after, enriched with fertilizers and often irrigate. On cultivated pastures carry out pening (portion) grazing of animals.
Agricultural lands of Russia
The total amount of territories suitable for agricultural use is relatively small in relation to the total area of Russian lands, which is why it is so important to use them purposefully and as efficiently as possible.
The quality and area of agricultural land, as well as the possibility of developing unused land, play a crucial role in the specialization of any agrarian economy. On the other hand, the production specifics of an enterprise, primarily reflecting its economic interests, have the opposite effect on the area and composition of land.
For example, in farms oriented to dairy and meat production, the structure of agricultural land will be dominated by pastures and hayfields, irrigated cultural forage lands and intensive fodder crop rotations.In enterprises engaged in the cultivation of crops, most of the land will be occupied by arable land, and in vineyards and horticultural farms - perennial plantings.
The system of animals also affects the ratio and composition of land. For example, if in the summer period animals are kept on pastures, then in the process of transforming these lands their area must be expanded. If year-round livestock housing is practiced, the required amount of green fodder can be obtained from arable land.
Principles of formation of the composition and ratio of land
When implementing this process, factors such as the organizational and economic structure of an enterprise, its financial and economic capabilities, and the availability of material and labor resources are taken into account.
In addition, the area and composition of land is largely dependent on the natural features of the territory and the differences between individual land plots and massifs. These factors require a differentiated approach to the establishment, transformation and improvement of the structure of land.
For example, in forest areas characterized by low fertility and wet land, arable land occupies a small area.The lack of arable land makes it impossible to further develop and improve the efficiency of the agricultural economy, therefore, it is necessary to expand the area for arable land by developing suitable land.
Practical implementation of the plan to change the composition and ratio of land
The transition from the current composition and size of the area to the project is feasible, subject to the following activities:
- draining of wetlands;
- cultural and technical works (the uprooting of forests and shrubs wedged in and impregnated into the agricultural land, the removal of stones);
- elimination of closed depressions and planning of the surface of the territory, including the creation of a microrelief for the removal of drains from wetlands;
- the cultivation of non-agricultural land (the liming of acid soils, seeding, the application of mineral and organic fertilizers, the sowing of green manure plants);
- road construction, road structures.
In the zone of forest-steppe, arable land usually has a high proportion, but is dissected by beams and ravines with different steepness of the slopes.In such conditions there is always a risk of water erosion, to prevent which the following work is carried out:
- tincture of highly eroded arable lands;
- repair of existing and planting of new forest plantations to protect areas from degradation; it is also necessary to competently design post-protective, water-regulating, near-rim and adjacent forest belts;
- organization of small irrigation systems (usually anti-erosion ponds are used for this);
- terracing slopes, erection of various hydraulic structures (for example, water retaining shafts);
- systematization of agrotechnical, organizational, economic and other anti-erosion measures;
- rationing grazing animals.
The main task in reforming the land in these conditions is to prevent the reduction of arable land. To do this, all land plots suitable for growing fodder and field crops are converted into arable land, simultaneously reducing to a minimum fodder lands. For grazing animals use unsuitable for plowing areas and beams.