Black Sea. Where is history and environmental issues
The Black Sea is the largest inland sea washing the territory of Russia. Being the most popular domestic resort area, at the same time it carries a lot of secrets and problems.
Answering the question of where the Black Sea is located on the map of Russia, we can say that it is located in the south-east of the country, washing the shores of the Caucasus and the Crimea. The Black Sea area has, according to various expert estimates, from 0.422 to 0.436 million square kilometers. The average depth is approximately 1.28 kilometers, and the highest reaches a value of 2.245 kilometers!
Because of its considerable depth, the internal volume of the Black Sea is several times larger than the volumes of both the Baltic and the Caspian seas at comparable sizes. There are many resorts in places where the Black Sea is located. In what city you admire them - Anapa, Sochi, Gelendzhik - it is beautiful everywhere.
The only significant island in the sea is Snake with an area of about one and a half square kilometers, the other islands are much smaller.
The shelf (or otherwise shallow) occupies approximately a quarter of the territory where the Black Sea is located. Gradually moving from the coast to a depth of 0.1–0.4 km, the sea shelf stretched with an uneven strip 0.5–250 km wide.
The third part of the site where the Black Sea is located is occupied by an ellipsoidal basin, which lies at a depth of two kilometers, and the rest of the area is occupied by a steep slope, which in some places reaches a slope of 30 degrees.
Features of the sea
The first interesting feature of the Black Sea is that it gradually wins the area from land. A little - only a centimeter per year, but over the century the sea level rises by a meter!
The second interesting feature of the sea is that its deep waters are lifeless, dead and poisonous. At depths of about 0.1–0.2 km, water is saturated in deadly concentrations with hydrogen sulfide, which makes any life impossible, with rare exceptions (some simple organisms). According to some reports, the thickness of the “dead layer” of the Black Sea is increasing and approaching the mark of 0.05 km from the surface of the water.
Animal and flora of the Black Sea
A rather diverse flora of the sea is represented, first of all, of course, by dozens of fish species: herring, flounder, mackerel, bream, carp, ram, beluga, other sturgeon, ruff, sprat, goby, and many, many others. In total, ichthyologists number about two hundred species of fish that are most common in this sea.
Among the other inhabitants of the sea, it is impossible not to mention such as sharks (quatrans), three species of dolphins, jellyfish, crabs, mussels, rapana, skates and so on.
The plant world consists of various algae, including microscopic (plankton), which float freely in the surface layers of water, enriching them with oxygen and serving as food for other living beings.
Historical background of the name of the Black Sea
The Greeks also visited the places where the Black Sea is located. The original Greek names of the Black Sea are known in different historical periods: Pont (Sea) Aksinsky (inhospitable) - during the period of almost undivided rule of pirates and Pont (Sea) Evksinsky (hospitable) - when the Greeks managed to establish successful trade and protect their ships after a century. These names appeared, respectively, in the 8th and 9th centuries BC.
Even in the tenth century of our era, the sea was called Surozh, after the name of the Russian city (conquered in the 8th or 9th century from Byzantium). Surozh is an important point on the Great Silk Road. Also, the sea was called Russian, the brands called it Tama-Rinda (dark depth), and only later the current name of the sea was fixed, only the original writing in different languages differed, but with the same meaning - Black sea, Mare Negrum, Karadenis and so on. Some historians have timed the renaming of the sea to the period of invasion of the Turkic tribes in those lands where the Black Sea (Crimean Peninsula).
Environmental problems of the Black Sea
Meanwhile, at a shallow depth of the Black Sea, a chemical bomb of mass destruction is quietly waiting for its hour. Indeed, in 1941, at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, in connection with the offensive of the enemy, Soviet troops were forced to drown the entire supply of combat gases (lewisite, as well as mustard gas, better known as mustard gas). Weapons of mass destruction were drowned in a hurry, the only condition was that the depth exceed 50 meters.
Total recessed in several areas of the sea, according to various estimates, from 500 to 1000 containers.Metal containers, rust, and, probably, part of the war poison is already coming out. Meanwhile, a lot of pollution penetrates the sea through the waters of the Danube and the Dnieper. Long distance these rivers pass from the place where the source is located. Of course, the Black Sea does not become cleaner from this, because on its way the rivers meet cities with industrial enterprises.