Closed cities of Russia: list, interesting facts
Today in the Russian Federation there are more than 40 closed territorial-administrative units, also referred to as CATFs. All of them are surrounded by rows of barbed wire and guarded by military patrols. These cities belong to the Ministry of Defense, Roscosmos and Rosatom. In order to enter the territory of closed cities in Russia, it is necessary to get a special pass. The easiest way to get such a document is for those who have relatives living in the ZATO territory. A pass is also received by those who got a job in such a city or found a soul mate from among local residents. However, it should be said that there are workarounds. For example, in some closed cities of Russia, various sports and cultural competitions are held from time to time to which outside participants can be invited. The most desperate trying to just find a hole in the fence to get into the city.Warn immediately: illegal entry into the territory of a closed city can lead to administrative liability and immediate expulsion. We have prepared for you a list of closed Russian cities that you should definitely visit. Well, or at least try to do it.
Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory
Other names of this locality are Krasnoyarsk 26, Atomgrad, Sotsgorod. This city received its special status due to the fact that the Mining and Chemical Combine is located on its territory. Formerly weapons-grade plutonium was produced here. Another object located in this place, JSC "Information Satellite Systems", producing, as the name implies, satellites. When building the city, the specialists who worked on its project adhered to the concept of maximum non-interference in the natural landscape, and therefore, if you look at it from a bird's-eye view, it may seem that the residential areas of the city are located right in the middle of the forest.
Not far from the settlement in the mountain range are uranium-graphite plutonium production reactors. By the way, one of them operated until recently.In addition to producing plutonium, he supplied the local population with electricity and heat. These reactors are located in kilometer-long tunnels in the depths of the granite monolith. One of the tunnels was laid from the Mining Chemical Plant to the opposite bank of the Yenisei.
Plutonium for mother-in-law
At the time of the Soviet Union, the status of a closed city attracted foreign intelligence agents to this locality. However, vigilant locals calculated them almost instantly. Especially popular among the population of Zheleznogorsk is the bike about its own countryman. In the eighties of the last century, one of the workers at the plant managed to carry a small amount of plutonium through the passage. Radio metal man kept at home in the most ordinary glass jar. Later, when the thief was “spotted” with the help of special equipment, he began to justify himself by simply wanting to poison his beloved mother-in-law. As a result of a forensic medical examination, an employee of the mining and chemical combine was declared insane and sent for compulsory treatment.
Mirny, Arkhangelsk region
This closed city of Russia is the administrative and residential center of the Plesetsk cosmodrome.By the way, in this place during the time of Tsarist Russia, a road, called the sovereign, passed in the direction of the White Sea. According to the legends, it was along this road that Mikhail Lomonosov went to Moscow after the train. However, there are no memorable signs on this territory, all the sights of the village are associated exclusively with space exploration.
In general, the city of Peace abounds in various monuments, monuments and obelisks. Even the stone with which the construction of the city began was turned into a monument. In memory of the fact that the first Soviet navigation spacecraft was launched, an obelisk "Cosmos-1000" was installed in the city, and when the satellite "Cosmos-2000" was put into orbit, another monument appeared on the territory of the settlement. Locals, by the way, even called him an alien. The thing is that it is strikingly similar to a representative of an extraterrestrial civilization. Fans of thrills pass to the city along a secret path, starting at the last turn of the neighboring village called Plesetsk. However, those who are here for the first time should clarify the topography of the locals and, of course, be prepared for a meeting with the military patrolling the territory.
Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory
This closed city of Russia, also referred to as Zaozerny-13 and Krasnoyarsk-45, received its special status due to the fact that an open joint-stock company called the Production Association Electrochemical Plant is located on its territory. Specialists of this plant produce low-enriched uranium.
This city appeared on the banks of the Kan River at the place where the village of Ust-Barga was before. The local population was involved in the construction, and in its course the village was wiped off the face of the earth. Speaking about the sights of Zelenogorsk, we should note the presence here of the Museum of Military Glory, the Museum and Exhibition Center. Also in the city is the temple of St. Seraphim of Sarov. The cadet corps operates in the city, and the fact that not only boys, but also girls deserve special attention. There is little entertainment in Zelenogorsk: locals can relax on the river bank or go to the city’s only nightclub. Visitors to the city may be surprised by its appearance: the fact is that Zelenogorsk is completely different from typical cities of the Soviet era. There are quite wide avenues, numerous public gardens, lawns everywhere. Only monuments to the leader of the revolution remind of the Soviet past.
Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region
Speaking about the most closed cities of Russia, it is impossible not to say about the city known as Shatki-1, Arzamas-75 and 16, the Kremlin, Moscow-300. It is on the territory of Sarov that the Russian Federal Nuclear Center is the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics. Let's just say: it is Sarov - the place where the atomic bomb was created. It should be noted that on the territory of this settlement there is one of the most revered Orthodox shrines - the Sarov desert. Under it is a real underground city! It was here that the hermit monks first descended in search of solitude and silence.
How to get to Sarov?
Speaking about how to visit this secret closed city of Russia, experts advise to use precisely religious motives. In 2006, a man’s monastery began to work again on the territory of Sarov; pilgrims regularly organize tours to it. However, atheists have the opportunity to visit this locality: the fact is that there is a Nuclear Weapon Museum on its territory. The main exhibit that attracts visitors here is the king of the bomb. Yes, yes, this is the very “kuzkina mother” that Khrushchev once threatened to show America!
Znamensk, Astrakhan Region
Among the closed military cities of Russia and Znamensk, also known as Kapustin Yar - 1. The reason for the special status of this settlement can be called the fact that it is the administrative and residential center of a military training ground called Kapustin Yar. This test site was built in 1946, it was necessary in order to conduct here tests of Soviet ballistic missiles, of course, combat. But his name - quite peaceful - he received from the village of the same name. It is worth noting that in fact Znamensk is not such a closed city: there are regular excursions for students and schoolchildren. Therefore, if you really want to visit closed cities on the map of Russia, you should submit a request to include you in the excursion group.
Dezik, Gypsy and Vasily Voznyuk
The first head of the landfill was Major General Vasily Voznyuk. He joined the service in the 46 year of the last century. By the way, the locals still remember him well, his portraits adorn the offices of the local administration and the Museum of Cosmonautics, located in the city. By the way, the very first space dogs set out from the city of Znamensk.And these were far from Belka and Strelka! From here, Dezik and Gypsy went to the cosmic expanses. It is worth noting that next to the Museum of Cosmonautics there is an open area where you can get acquainted with samples of military equipment: there are various rocket launchers and radars.
Forest, Sverdlovsk region
Speaking about the closed nuclear cities of Russia, it is impossible not to mention Sverdlovsk-45, known as the city of Forest. On its territory is located "Combine" Electrohimpribor ", which is engaged in the collection and disposal of nuclear bombs. In addition, the specialists of the plant produce uranium isotopes. The appearance of this city on the map of Russia is the merit of the GULAG prisoners. More than twenty thousand prisoners worked on the construction of a secret facility! The best specialists supervised the work, but it didn’t manage without the tragic incidents during the construction of Lesnoy. A few dozen people died here during blasting operations. They were not buried properly, their bodies are in mass graves.
As for the appearance of the Forest, it is incredibly similar to other closed cities. Monument to Lenin, Yuri Gagarin Square, three-storey houses built in the fifties, Stalinist buildings, wide bright avenues.A few kilometers from Lesnoy is the town of Lower Tura. Here, residents of the closed city can visit the historical and ecological museums.
Novouralsk, Sverdlovsk Region
In the list of closed cities of Russia and Sverdlovsk-44, better known to the inhabitants as Novouralsk. The Ural Electrochemical Plant is located on its territory, engaged in the production of highly enriched uranium. Particularly desperate make their way into the city through the forest, located near the village called Belorechka. However, for a person who has never been to these places before, it is very easy to get lost, because the extreme lovers are looking for their own guides. In the very heart of Novouralsk there is a local history museum, there is also an operetta theater in the city. Artists for the latter, by the way, are brought up by a local music school.
What is so interesting this closed city of Russia? The list of natural monuments that abound in its surroundings is amazing. For example, here is the Hanging Rock Rock and Mount Seven Brothers. About the latter, by the way, there are many legends in these places. It is said that this mountain is seven stone idols into which the conqueror of Siberia Yermak turned sorcerers who prevented the conquest of these places.According to another version, the mountain is all that remains of the seven gold miners who were guarding their prey for the whole night. Another version says: in Soviet times, when war was declared to the Old Believers, seven of them fled to the mountains. Here they hoped to escape from persecution. They became stones not because some supernatural forces interfered, but because of ordinary fear.
Obolensk, Moscow region
What closed cities of Russia have lost their status? There are several dozen of them on the list. Perhaps a special place in the list is situated near Moscow Obolensk. In the days of the Soviet Union, it was not indicated on the maps; its laboratories, which were disguised as a regular sanatorium, were the place where Soviet scientists fought with biological weapons. The closed territory of Obolensk was until 1994, the city-forming enterprise was the center of applied microbiology. This is where scouts brought strains with bacteria from secret laboratories in countries such as the United States of America and England.
Today, this former closed city of Russia is a repository of about three and a half thousand strains of bacteria.Anthrax, tuberculosis, glanders, tularemia - all this was inherited by the city from the Cold War. It is worth saying that vaccines and viruses were developed not only in the laboratories of Obolensk, 50 more enterprises of the USSR were engaged in this. All of them were part of the association called "Biopreparat", there is evidence that about forty thousand specialists worked in this research and production association.