Expose! Galileo was burned for the phrase "But still she turns!"?
Everything is probably already aware of this error, but still come in order. The first person to make a serious contribution to the school textbook of astronomy was Nicolaus Copernicus. He lived in the XVI century, often looked into the sky and once realized that the earth revolves around the sun. He died by his death at the age of 70, because he did not shout in the squares: “The earth is spinning, boys!” - but quietly deduced formulas that no one could understand.
But the poet and mystic Giordano Bruno, who was next, just burned. From the works of Copernicus, he understood only that the Earth is a small planet, of which there are many in the Universe, and this idea fell well on the religious doctrine which he invented. In 1584, Bruno began touring the cities with sermons, and he was burned for heresy after 16 years.
Galileo was the third.
The young Florentine Galileo Galilei, who studied at the University of Pisa, attracted the attention of professors not only clever reasoning, but also original inventions.Alas, the gifted student was expelled from the third year - his father had no money for his studies. But the young man had a patron, a rich man, the Marquis of Guidobaldo del Moita, who was fond of sciences. He supported the 22-year-old Galileo. Thanks to Marquis a man entered the world who showed his genius in mathematics, physics, and astronomy. During his lifetime he was compared with Archimedes. He first declared that the universe is infinite.
Undoubtedly, such a gifted young man and without Marquis would make his way in life. Galileo had a persistent character, knew how to defend his opinion and was not afraid to refute the generally recognized authorities. In his talent, he was universal - he enthusiastically loved music, having inherited the abilities of his father, a famous Florentine composer, proved himself to be a writer, poet, and mastered medical skills. But, having become acquainted with physics, mathematics and astronomy, I realized that his way was science.
His first treatise "On Movement" shook the learned world of that time. In it, Galileo proved that the free fall of different bodies occurs with the same acceleration. And this acceleration does not depend on the weight of the falling body. His conclusion contradicted the ideas of Aristotelian, scholastic physics, but Galileo proved it experimentally.It is said that he climbed onto the Tower of Pisa and dropped iron balls of different weights from the top floor ...
Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, but his childhood and youth were spent in Florence. Initially, he studied at the monastery Vallombroza, wanted to become a priest, he studied the works of the church. But his father, who discovered great abilities in him, was against it and sent him to the University of Pisa to study medicine. In the University of Galileo, distinguished by extraordinary curiosity, began to attend lectures on geometry. Among the teachers, he quickly gained a reputation as a debater who expressed his own opinion on various scientific issues.
In 1592, Galileo was offered the chair of mathematics at Padunsky University, of which he remained the head for 18 years. It was the most productive period of his teaching and research activities. Then he discovered the law of inertia, according to which the body is at rest, if no forces act on it. And it can move rectilinearly and evenly for a long time under the influence of an external force, unless other forces act on it.Upon learning that a magnifying tube had appeared in Holland, with the help of which one can observe stars in the sky, he made a telescope with a 32x magnification. He was one of the first to find craters on the Moon, mountain ranges, he saw spots on the Sun. He set forth his observations in the book Star Star, which was published in 1610.
Observing the celestial bodies, Galileo, like Copernicus, came to the heliocentric system, making sure that the Earth revolves around the Sun, and not vice versa. But this scientifically proven view was contrary to the tenets of the church. Galileo was a Catholic, a believer, he was not going to give up the idea of God, but he could not help but say the obvious, and the laws of physics confirmed his observations.
Galileo before the Holy Judgment. Artist J. -N. Robert Fleury. 1847
This position outraged the clergy. Galileo received a denunciation, where he was accused of heresy. In 1615 he went to Rome to make excuses for the Inquisition. The writings of Copernicus were already listed in the banned list. Galileo had to speak very carefully about his scientific discoveries. He was warned and released. And in 1633 the famous process took placeon which he had to repent publicly and abandon his "delusions." According to legend, after the verdict, Galileo uttered the famous phrase: “But still, it turns.”
Being a prisoner of the Inquisition, he lived for eight years in solitude in Rome, then near Florence. He was forbidden to publish his work, to make experiments. But despite all the restrictions, prohibitions and blindness began, Galileo continued to work. He became completely blind in 1637 and died in prison 5 years later. A hundred years later, his ashes were transferred to Florence and buried next to Michelangelo.
In 1992, Pope John Paul II declared the decision of the court of the Inquisition erroneous and rehabilitated Galileo.
Judging by the testimonies of friends and the letters of Galileo himself, his views did not change after ostentatious repentance, he was still convinced of the rotation of the Earth. However, there is no evidence that Galileo said this phrase. Biography of Galileo, written in the years 1655-1656. his student and follower of Vincenzo Viviani, does not contain any mention of this phrase.
For the first time in print, these words were attributed to Galileo in 1757 (that is, 124 years after his abdication) by Italian journalist Giuseppe Baretti in his book The Italian Library. The myth became widely known in 1761, after the translation of the Baretti book into French.In particular, in the book of Querelles Litteraires (“Literary strife”), published in Paris in 1761, Ogyapen Simon Trell wrote: : “But it’s still spinning!”, - meaning the Earth ”
Or another option: it is thanks to the famous artist Murillo, who after the death of Galileo his portrait was ordered. The order was executed by one of the students of Murillo in 1646. And only 250 years later, critics established that the wide frame skillfully hides the “heretical” part of the picture, which shows astronomical sketches showing the Earth's rotation around the Sun, and the famous words: “Eppus si muove!”. This is where the roots of the legend are probably hidden.
Later, the German poet and playwright Karl Gutskov (1811–1878) put these words into the mouth of Uriel Acosta, the hero of his tragedy “Uriel Acosta” (act 4, yavl. 11). This play was often staged in Russia at the end of the 19th - early 20th centuries, which contributed to the spread of this expression in Russian society.
The prototype of the hero of this tragedy is Uriel Acosta (c. 1585—1640), a Dutch thinker-free-thinker of Jewish origin.For speaking out against the dogmas of Judaism, against belief in the afterlife, he was persecuted by the Orthodox. He committed suicide.
The phrase is a symbol of a person’s self-righteousness, no matter how much anyone would strive to shake this confidence.
Here are some more interesting questions and answers: for example, why is HEART so painted?, And are you sure Are hedgehogs eating apples with mushrooms ?. Maybe you don't know. Do you know who made the first trip around the world? or Why during flags are lowered by mourning?This is a copy of the article located at http://masterokblog.ru/?p=12350.