Flatfoot in children and adults. Flatfoot: treatment
If a patient, regardless of age, has been diagnosed with flat feet, the treatment that was started in time is the main factor in eliminating such an unpleasant manifestation. If you ignore the problem, the pathological process will begin to progress rapidly. Unfortunately, this provokes the emergence of many diseases. It is rather difficult to eliminate them, but the consequences sometimes become truly deplorable.
Quite often flatfoot causes degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the joints. The reason lies in the incorrect distribution of the load on the main joints of the skeleton, various postural disorders. As a rule, the disease is considered harmless, even sometimes "ridiculous." However, the fact that young people who have flat feet, the army will never call into their ranks, speaks about its effect on the body. So is the disease really “funny” and harmless?
What is flatfoot?
To understand what happens with this disease, you should take a closer look at the anatomical structure of the foot. Normal physiology implies that a person never relies on all bones. This process involves only the heads of the metatarsal bones (first, fifth) and the calcaneus. This is how a person can move easily enough. At the same time walking does not cause pain and difficulty.
If another bone is connected to the main points of support (sometimes there may be several of them), doctors diagnose flatfoot. The photo clearly demonstrates how a healthy foot looks and is damaged by the ailment. Depending on the flattening of the longitudinal or transverse axis, flat feet are divided into two corresponding groups. Sometimes the disease can occur for several reasons.
Do not forget that flat feet, the treatment of which has not begun, seriously progresses. As a result, the spring function of the stop is lost. Therefore, it is very important, as soon as the causeless fatigue of the legs appeared or the worn-out shoes became noticeable, to go, without delay, to the orthopedist.
Only 3% of people are born with a flat foot, laid genetically. Predisposition to this disease is inherited.However, one should not confuse a congenital problem with the physiological process characteristic of babies. Flat feet in children can occur as a result of an abnormally shaped foot.
Adolescents may experience symptoms of illness in a period of intense growth. As a rule, bones of a skeleton promptly develop. Muscles and ligaments lagging behind. As a result, they simply do not have time to strengthen the bones properly. This disease is especially pronounced in children who do not move much and do not do sports at all.
The main causes of flatfoot consider:
- Genetic weakness of the ligaments. The bones of the foot in this case are not sufficiently strengthened by the muscles.
- Inconvenient poor-quality shoes. Frequent walking on high "heels".
- Long vertical position (standing or walking).
- The presence of illness in relatives.
- Diseases of the spine. A person tries to take a pose that will allow you to minimally feel the thrill.
- Fractures of bones, wrongly accrete.
- Hypodynamia or bed rest for a long time.
- Diseases of muscles, bones, ligaments.
- Active ballet class.
Symptoms of the disease
Flatfoot is characterized by pathological changes in the foot. The vaulted shape flattens. This leads to the inability to perform natural physiological functions. After all, the foot serves as a shock absorber. Spring and quenching shocks, she takes the main vertical load. This feature protects the spine and pelvic bones from mechanical stress. If it is lost, the musculoskeletal system begins to suffer from shocks and jolts. In this case, the load falls on all the bones, starting from the base of the skull and ending with the lower limbs.
It is quite easy to identify flat feet. Symptoms quite eloquently indicate the presence of the disease.
The main features include:
- an unevenly sloping heel in worn-out shoes (often on the inside);
- fatigue of the legs when standing or walking;
- the appearance in the evening of pain, heaviness, cramps, fatigue in the legs;
- swelling of the ankles;
- difficulty walking in heels;
- rapidly growing foot (comfortable shoes are almost smaller in size);
- intense "expansion" of the foot;
- gait change;
- the presence of pain in the spine and lower back.
Just do not set yourself a diagnosis yourself. All the above symptoms can characterize not only flat feet, but also other diseases. For example, varicose veins causes very similar symptoms. But treatment is required for such a disease is completely different. Therefore, all symptoms should be very carefully discussed with your doctor.
Types of flatfoot
Depending on the causes of the disease, there are five main types:
- Paralytic. Very rare form. This species is caused by polio. The muscles that support the foot, practically do not function. This provokes "spreading".
- Statistical.The most common type. The occurrence of this type is associated with tight shoes, long vertical position, weight lifting, walking in high heels. By the way, a flat sole also leads to a statistical type of flatfoot.
- Rakhitic.All babies prescribed vitamin D3 as a preventive measure. However, most children still suffer from rickets. The disease leads to soft bones. In this situation, the ligaments and muscles lose their normal tone.
- Traumatic. This type may result from incorrectly accreted fractures. Occupation of a traumatic sport or frequent strikes can lead to this type of exercise.
- Congenital. Remember that flat feet in children can be detected in the second year of life, and sometimes earlier. It is very important that the examination was conducted by a competent orthopedist. Pediatricians are not always able to thoroughly know all the features. And early diagnosis of the disease is a tremendous chance to permanently get rid of the disease. Until the age of two, there is a fat pad on the baby’s foot, which makes it difficult to identify the disease. Over time, the bones, ligaments and muscles get stronger. Already at the age of five, the foot of the baby acquires similarity with an adult. Now you can confidently understand whether this disease is present in the child.
Types of flatfoot
As previously noted, as a result of the flattening of a certain arch of the foot, the disease may be longitudinal or transverse. In some cases, a combined form occurs.
Transverse flatfoot is characterized by the expansion of the foot. Quite often, this type is combined with various pathologies of the musculoskeletal system.This may be osteochondrosis, arthritis.
Longitudinal flat feet cause a person serious problems in determining the size of shoes. As a rule, patients notice that the difference in the morning and evening is quite significant. Sometimes it reaches 2 sizes. Of course, this leads to rubbing the skin of the feet, the formation of calluses.
Degrees of severity
Like most diseases, this ailment has several forms. To date, there are three degrees of flatfoot. In this case, different types of disease have their own signs.
Stages of longitudinal flatfoot:
- 1 degree. Only long walking or running causes tired legs. A change in gait is noticed. Towards evening the feet swell.
- 2 degree.The pain is felt not only in the ankles. It extends to the lower leg. The arch of the foot begins to fade.
- 3 degree. When it is already clearly visible even with the naked eye, foot deformity. The process of walking causes great difficulties. Pain extends to the lower back. In some cases, it reaches the point that even a headache.
Stages of transverse flatfoot:
- 1 degree. Thumb bends almost 20 degrees.Very difficult long standing or walking. A person feels pain in the foot. This flatfoot in adults and adolescents is accompanied by the formation of corns. The area of the skin under the thumb becomes red, it becomes quite painful.
- 2 degree.Symptomatology is greatly enhanced. The thumb is already deflected to 35 degrees. Walking causes prolonged pain. The strongest felt in the area of the first finger. Corns significantly increase in size.
- 3 degree. This stage is characterized by a sharply left thumb. The joint is very inflamed. The rest of the toes are also deformed.
Regardless of the degree of flatfoot, complete cure of the disease is possible only in childhood. An adult person who has this diagnosis should accept the fact that throughout his life he will have to adhere to certain rules. This applies to shoes, and physical activity, and the necessary exercises.
Treatment of children
As previously noted, flatfoot in infants is quite common. With the development and growth of the child, the final formation of the foot occurs.To further problems did not arise, parents should monitor the development of the legs almost from birth.
Prevention of flatfoot includes the following measures:
If during the examination the doctor revealed congenital flatfoot, treatment should not consist only in home methods. It is very important in this case to fully follow the instructions of the doctor. He will select the necessary treatment, usually calculated for several years.
Remember, the child's foot is very plastic. In most cases, this disease with the proper approach is completely cured by conservative methods. It is extremely rare for congenital flatfoot of children to require surgery.
When purchasing children's shoes, it is very important to remember what qualities they should have:
- hard, high enough backdrop;
- clasp or lacing, allowing you to properly fix the shoes on the foot;
- small heel (up to 1 cm), evenly distributing the load on the surface of the foot;
- the presence of the instep with a clearly defined pad in the middle of the insole.
Remember, you must choose shoes strictly in size. The gap “for growth” is admissible only up to 5 mm.Do not force babies to wear uncomfortable and tight shoes. For a healthy foot it is optimal to choose shoes with a flexible sole. But if a child has flat feet, a rigid insole is preferable. But it is best to consult with the orthopedist in this matter.
Set of exercises
Kids are very useful to periodically go barefoot. As a preventive measure, you can prepare a special simulator for your child. Put round pebbles in a shallow box. The diameter of the pebbles can vary from one to three centimeters. It is very useful to walk on such pebbles barefoot for half an hour.
Take it as a rule to do simple exercises with your child every day. Exercises can be included both in the morning complex, and in suitable games.
- Stretch up. The feet are parallel. It should rise on the socks, as if reaching for the sun and go down. It is enough to repeat 10-12 times.
- Riding a round object.You can use a round ball or stick (great rolling pin). Foot is necessary to roll the selected object on the floor. The time of such an exercise is five minutes.
- Rotation of the feet. It is necessary to sit comfortably and stretch your legs. Heel rests on the floor. Rotate the feet in different directions alternately. Repeat 10 times to the right and 10 to the left.
- Bruin Bear. Suggest the child to walk, imitating a bear. To do this, the child must take ten steps on the inside of the foot and the same on the outside. After that, ask your child to walk on socks and heels.
- Roll foot.Standing on your heels, raise your socks. Then smoothly roll onto your fingers and go back. Such rolls should be done 10 times.
- Flexion. Work your toes. About three minutes, bend and straighten them.
- Hold the subject.Such an exercise quite often like kids. Encourage the child to shift the feet of small (like a small ball) objects from one pile to another.
This set of exercises is best to complete a massage. The main techniques are kneading the feet, lightly stroking upwards. In order not to harm the baby, discuss the course of massage with an orthopedist or give your child into the hands of a professional. It should be noted that the specialist-masseur quite effectively uses bamboo sticks and special devices.
Quite a serious question.If an adult is diagnosed with flat feet, no one will tell you how to treat the ailment. Any measures are only aimed at alleviating the symptoms. An alternative is surgery. But you should know that the operation does not give one hundred percent certainty of an excellent result.
In this case, publicly available home methods can considerably ease the fate of the patient and significantly reduce pain. And, importantly, to stop the further progression of the disease.
The most important methods are: exercise therapy, wearing proper shoes and massage. The complex of exercises described above is also perfect for adults. It should only increase the number of repetitions. You can diversify this physical culture. The doctor or trainer will be able to choose an individual course.
For massage, you can choose two or three days a week. In this case it is worth doing it in courses of 10-15 procedures. If this manipulation is possible only once a week, then massage should be done constantly.
Women who are diagnosed with this disease, it is better to abandon the high heel.However, a completely flat sole is also undesirable. It is best to choose shoes with a small heel (up to 4 cm) and fairly stable. A big plus would be the presence of a hard backdrop.
The most important thing is to choose the right orthopedic insoles for flatfoot. The best option would be to make them to order, taking full account of the features of the foot. Already finished insole can be bought in specialized stores. Do not forget about this attribute. Properly selected insole will significantly improve the condition and reduce the load on the surface of the feet.
Flat feet - treacherous and quite a serious illness. It accelerates the wear and tear of almost the entire body, delivers many problems and pain. Therefore, you should be very serious about such an "insignificant" problem as flatfoot. In no case should the treatment be delayed. Unfortunately, people rarely pay attention to the feet, and they get to the doctor at an advanced stage of the disease.