How do water towers work? Water tower Rozhnovskogo
Water towers are technical facilities that humanity has used for more than one century. In the Middle Ages, the enemy tried to destroy these buildings first. This forced the local army to capitulate more quickly, since it was left without water. Today, water towers are still relevant.
The water tower is a special design necessary to track the water pressure and its flow, which allows you to observe how reserves are formed in the water supply system.
Usually a tower consists of a tank (tank for liquid) and a barrel on which the tank is fixed.
The water tower was designed by engineer A.A. Rozhnovsky in 1936. Up to this point in the country used similar facilities built of brick. Rozhnovsky offered a very profitable solution to the problem of accumulation and storage of water.In this case, the structure is very quickly mounted - only 2-4 days. Its construction takes minimal cost. In addition, there is no need for mandatory heating, performed to prevent freezing of water.
In 1942, A.A. Rozhnovsky was awarded the Stalin award for his invention.
But towers that did not need heating were not only developed by A.A. Rozhnovsky, but also PI Zemskov. The latter came to the conclusion that during the construction of such structures can save significant cash.
The railway at that time needed large tanks, where it would be possible to store a supply of water intended for locomotives. Until 1951, water towers were used only in this way. But after these buildings began to appear in agriculture.
Purpose of water towers
The main purpose of these facilities is to provide constant and uninterrupted water supply to small settlements and enterprises engaged in light industry. The towers are adapted for storing large amounts of water. In addition, if all the pumps suddenly stop, the liquid is supplied under a slight pressure. Fire and reserve water is also stored here.Also, these structures are necessary in those places where electricity is supplied with frequent interruptions, that is, the stable operation of electric pumps is simply impossible.
The water tower of Rozhnovsky has proved itself to be reliable, durable and simple in design. It is indispensable, provided that the structure is operated correctly.
The design of the water towers is unified. Individual copies differ only in tank capacity and height of the barrel support. The volume of the tank lies in the range from 15 to 50 m3. The height of the water tower can be 9-25 meters. It all depends on the terrain, as well as what the pressure losses in the water supply network and, of course, the number of floors served buildings. All the necessary calculations are carried out even in the design.
However, water towers can not be built in areas where karst phenomena occur, as well as in permafrost conditions. If the air temperature drops below -20 ° C, then water exchange should be carried out twice a day.
The construction of the tower can be made of steel, brick or reinforced concrete. The height of the structure can reach several tens of meters.In the upper part, it necessarily has a water tank. Most often, this capacity is cylindrical. The used volume of the tank depends on the capacity of the water supply system serving it, and the flow of water in it.
For example, a small business or village will require several cubic meters. In cities, the volume can increase tens or hundreds of times.
The operation of the water tower depends on:
- pipes continued to supply and drain water;
- overflow devices that automatically shut off pumps to prevent overflow of capacity;
- water level measurement systems that transmit signals to the control room.
In some cases, no support is provided for the water tank. The water storage tank is installed on elevated terrain. Typically, this method is used in mountainous terrain.
Most often, the tanks have a rounded shape. Technological, architectural and construction considerations dictate the norms of the ratio of the height and diameter of the tank. The tank should not be very large, because in this case the height of the rising water increases. In addition, in the system there are significant fluctuations in pressure.
The appearance of the tower should be aesthetic and not to stand out from the overall composition of the area. The architectural ensemble of the area continues to be harmonious. Quite often, industrial enterprises (if they have two or more networks of different heads) install several tanks on the tower. At the same time they are located at different heights. The size of the whole structure determines the water pressure in the water tower.
To carry out maintenance of the structure, an external staircase with fences is installed. If the height is more than twelve meters, the equipment also has an additional platform with fences.
How does the water tower Rozhnovsky?
The distribution pipe provides water to the tower. If the tank is used for water sampling and fire extinguishing, the pipeline is equipped with a riser with two closed valves.
The pumping station takes groundwater into the water tower. During the injection process, water is filtered and disinfected. From the tank it is fed through the water supply system to residential buildings.
It is very important to correctly determine the height of the water tower.The tank should be located above the last floor of the building. This contributes to the normal supply of water.
Pumping station operation
The work of the pumping station is constantly intensive. Water should flow into the tank’s capacity and accumulate there while its consumption is reduced. When there is a need for more water, the accumulated water supply begins to be used.
The pump feeds water. At that moment, when the level of liquid in the tank reaches the upper permissible mark, a special sensor is activated, and the pump is turned off. Since water consumption is continuous, its level in the tank decreases when the lower permissible limit is reached. And here again the signal to the pump about the need to turn on. The reservoir is refilled. As fluid is consumed, the pressure in the water tower decreases, which causes the pump to work again.
An organization that operates a water tower must carry out its maintenance. In the event of a malfunction in the system, it is first necessary to drain the water stored in the tank.Only after this procedure, you can begin to eliminate the fault.
Compliance with all the necessary technical requirements for operation affects how long the water tower will last and how often problems will occur.
Complete set of installation
Every year the number of fires increases.
That is why the demand for water towers, having a non-standard size or unusual design, is constantly growing. Such requirements arise in the preparation of water reserves, which will be needed in extinguishing forest fires.
Most often, the water towers in the configuration have:
- stairs with fencing;
- discharge pipe;
- feed pipe;
- loops for lifting and installing the tower;
- internal staircase;
- upper and lower inspection hatches;
- ice holders;
- 4 stretch marks having a thickness of 12 mm.
How are water towers used at low temperatures
Towers created by A.A. Rozhnovsky, today used in a variety of climatic conditions, including in low temperature conditions. But even these structures have limitations, which makes it impossible to use them in the following conditions:
- in winter, the estimated temperature should not be lower than -35 ° C;
- acceptable snow cover weight is 100 kgf / m or less;
- possible wind pressure - 38 kgf / m or less;
- there is no groundwater;
- permissible seismic activity in the area may be 6 points and below;
- soils should not be heaving, not subsiding, ie, homogeneous.
The decisive role during the installation of the water tower of Rozhnovsky is played by taking into account the limits of freezing temperatures. For example, the process of installation and operation of the structure is impossible in permafrost conditions or in the zone of development of the karst process.
In most cases, the water tower is not necessary to warm the special means. Usually there is a natural formation of thermal "shirt".
If water is used in normal mode, then it simply does not have time to freeze. If it is used less frequently, then an additional “tent” made of wood can be installed on the tank, which will slow down the freezing process. When a water tower is used in field conditions, it should be drained before winter to prevent it from freezing.
With a prepared site, installation of the structure in most cases takes no more than three days. The basis is a reinforced concrete monolithic foundation, which provides embedded parts. The bottom of the support is welded to them. Further, the lower part is covered with soil, the height of which must be at least 2.5 meters. This soil should be renewed in 3-4 years. It is needed to prevent corrosion, which significantly prolong the life.
In addition, every 3-4 years, as well as with regular use, the coating and internal surfaces should be updated.
It should be remembered that if the company decided to install such a structure as a water tower, the price will depend mainly on the volume of the tank and the height of the support.