How to dig a well?
The well is needed on any private farmstead, where there is no possibility to connect to the central water supply. Of course, the owners of those villas and houses that stand on the bank of a river or a lake can quite easily arrange the supply of life-giving moisture to their homes from these sources.
But even a very clean and deep river that flows close to a country house only partially solves the water supply problem, because the water is unsuitable for drinking, and only a well dug in the area can reliably provide the inhabitants of the house with clean drinking water. Let's take a closer look at how to dig a well with your own hands.
Where and when to dig a well?
It makes sense to dig a classic manhole in the event that the aquifer in your area lies at a depth of no more than 15 meters. If the aquifer is located below the specified value, it will be better to drill a well.
In order not to be mistaken with the depth of the aquifer, the well must be dug in the driest season of the year, in late summer or early autumn, at a time when the groundwater level drops to the minimum
For sanitary reasons it is not possible to dig a well near a drain pit, compost or manure heap, or near an outdoor toilet. In order to prevent the destruction of the foundation of the buildings, the well must be dug no closer than five meters from the house or outbuildings.
You should not dig a well on a slope or on a hill (in such places the aquifer lies deep, and it will be difficult for you to get to it). An ideal place for a well is a flat, non-stony piece of land located in a valley.
How to dig a well: instruction
In order to dig a well, you will need:
- shovels (bayonet, shovel and engineer);
- several skeins of thick rope;
- big and low wooden carriage - portage;
- lifting mechanism (winch or self-made powerful tripod with a waist);
- work gloves;
- water pump;
- cement and gravel.
In addition to all of the above, you will need special factory concrete rings used to strengthen the walls of the well shaft. Most often for the construction of wells use rings KC 10-9, the inner diameter of which is equal to one meter, and height - 90 cm.It is necessary to dig a well for at least three, without assistants in this matter can not do!
- Level the pad at the location selected under the well. Using a peg and a rope tied to it, draw a circle on the ground, the diameter of which is 10-15 cm larger than the outer diameter of the concrete ring.
- By marking start to dig a round hole. When its depth is large enough (ten centimeters less than the height of the ring), temporarily stop digging, on the wooden cart, drag the first ring to the pit and carefully lower it there. Ensure that the ring is vertical.
- Roll the second ring on it and connect it with the first special brackets. For greater tightness between the rings, lay hemp tarred rope and seal the seam with cement mortar.
- Next, from the inside of the ring, begin to remove the excess earth. Move evenly in a circle, undermining the soil near the walls of the ring, and then remove it from the center of the pit. Fold the extracted earth into a bucket and lift it to the surface. The ring under its own weight will begin to sink and smoothly sink into the soil, along with it the second ring will also fall.
- When its top is almost equal to the surface of the earth, hoist a third ring on it and continue to dig.
- Do this in the following way: remove the ground evenly, lift it to the surface and string one ring over the other as you go. Under the action of gravity, the rings will gradually lower and lower, and your well will slowly deepen.
- When you reach the aquifer and groundwater begins to flow intensively in the well shaft (at the bottom of the well by this time at least three water keys should break through), stop the work. Pump out water and washed sand from the pit.
- Remove from the well a few more buckets of soil, cover it and wait about a day. During this time, the well must be filled with water again.
- After this time has elapsed, pump out all the water collected in it from the well, clean the bottom of it well again and pour a twenty-centimeter layer of coarse gravel on it. Lay a layer of fine crushed stone 30-40 cm thick over coarse gravel. Such a stone filter will protect the well from silting and sanding.
- Arrange the top of the well. Lay another concrete ring (the well should rise 120-150 cm above the ground), make a lid, install the gate and build a wooden shed or a small house above the well.