How to grow peas in the open field? Caring for pea crops
Growing peas is an exciting and very useful activity. Culture does not require too much attention from the gardener and bears fruit very well. With a minimum of effort, you get the opportunity in the summer to provide for your family, as well as to gather and dry it for the winter. However, the end result is highly dependent on the choice of soil, variety and compliance with the rules of care for the crop. Today we talk about how to grow peas. There is nothing difficult in this, even a novice gardener can get excellent results.
This is especially true of small plots, the land on which is never empty. However, legumes are not too demanding and will grow well after almost any garden crops. When choosing a predecessor, you need to take into account that peas are very picky about the nutritional value of the soil, and also require protection from weeds. Therefore, if eggplants, cucumbers or flowering plants were growing in the garden,Ornamental plants, which pull out almost all organic matter from the ground, it is better to leave them under something else.
Since it is recommended to grow peas every time in a new place, this question will arise regularly. But relatives - this is not the best option. They accumulate a soil infection that will ruin your plantings. A plot occupied by perennial grasses is also a bad option, because it is here where dangerous pests hide and hibernate. Excellent crops will be winter crops.
In fact, you can not know anything about how to grow peas, but simply sow the remaining piece of land on your plot with dry beans. As a result, the plant will delight children with tasty fresh fruits. But to obtain high results, it is very important to know the peculiarities of agrotechnics. Peas are referred to as annual crops. It has a small stem with a length of up to 250 cm. The structure of the stem strongly depends on the selected variety. The color is most often light green, but sometimes it is also gray-green. Leaves also move away from the stem, and white flowers appear during flowering.
Preparing for landing
Today we will look at how to grow peas in detail so that there are no more white spots on this issue. It is cold-resistant and completely undemanding plant, which should be planted back in April. Why so early? Because the earth at this time still retains its moisture. Of course, it can be maintained artificially, but the microclimate will be different.
Of course, farmers are resorting to another method - soaking. But this process is more laborious and does not suit those who need to plant a large area. It's one thing when holding a bag of dry beans, and quite another when you take a pot with swollen seeds that stick together. Wet hands + earth - and soon liquid mud forms in the bowl, in which it is unpleasant to submerge the fingers, catching the next grain.
Sowing peas are very fond of sunny places. The soil should have a neutral pH, in acidic its growth and development slows down. Choose a bright place. Fertilizers will be very useful before planting. Perfect humus and compost. This culture is unpretentious and calmly take almost any feeding.In addition to acidified, any soil is suitable. But its composition should pay special attention. If the soil is clay, heavy, then the pea is laid out almost on the surface, without penetration. Light, sandy soil has a different structure. In this case, the seeds should be buried deeper, so that the plant was holding on to. There are some tricks that must be taken into account. The plant can scatter lash on the ground, but in this case, planting will take up a lot of space and give a poor harvest. Therefore, it is recommended to install the supports for which the plant will cling. Only in this case one can expect a good harvest from him.
Today there are three types of peas:
But that's not all, there are dozens of varieties of each species. Some are good fresh, others should be harvested after full aging, chopped into two halves and, in this form, added to soups and cook mashed potatoes. But young peeling peas are not much different from sugar or brain peas that are eaten fresh. Therefore, gardeners often decide to kill two birds with one stone: feast on delicate green beans in the first two weeks of aging, and collect everything else and put in storage.Let's look at the most popular varieties of peas to know exactly what to look for in the store.
It is universal. It can be eaten directly from the garden or canned. If a product is being grown for sale and it was not possible to sell it “green”, do not worry - sell it later as yellow. It may even be next year. We proceed directly to the consideration of varieties.
- Atlant is one of the favorite gardeners of most, especially if you plan to harvest it for the winter. Not all varieties of peas can boast such a fast ripening period - only 55 days. The beans are large and easily split when ripe. Pest resistance is almost 100%.
- Abador - well suited for small areas, a great option if you want to plant a small bed, exclusively for fresh food. The stalk is very low and winding, does not require serious support, but does not give a big harvest.
- Adagum pea - the height of the bush is 85-90 cm, the beans are large, which is especially pronounced with a balanced fertilizer. Increased powdery mildew resistance.
- The hut is ideally balanced in taste characteristics, suitable for preservation and great fresh. Resistant to most diseases and pests.Mid-season, yields a crop of 70 days.
- Pharaoh - quite often landed on an industrial scale. It is tasty in a green look, and also successfully dried and stored after aging. The only one of all resistant to fungal diseases.
They are called so, because the pea seeds have folds in the form of convolutions. This species is suitable for those who want to grow the plant exclusively for food in the summer, while the peas are green and sweet.
- Voronezh Green - the first fruit harvest occurs on the 40th day after germination. The plant is large, the leaves are small, which makes it easy to harvest. In technical ripeness is green. The plant is resistant to fungal and bacterial diseases.
- Tropar - if you want to go in for canning, to cook delicious salads and soups all winter, then choose this variety. Seeds of peas of this litter are usually sold in specialized stores, you will not have to look for them. Ripeness occurs 50 days after planting, the stem is low, upright. Despite the low yield peas are in great demand.
Pea seeds are distinguished by the absence of parchment in the bean.They can be used along with the bean, cut into salads and entrees. It is best to choose local varieties. There are relatively few of them, they have recently been displayed.
- Candy is the most popular of the varieties of this species. It is intended for freezing and canning, so all year you will enjoy your harvest.
- Peas Alpha. One of the main advantages is drought resistance: it requires almost no watering. Ideal for giving, which is not possible to ride every day. Bred one of the first, but does not lose its relevance. It is planted annually on hundreds of garden plots and pleases children and adults with tasty fruits.
Peas in the garden are very easy to grow, but when choosing a variety, you need to decide right away if you take it for a living or for your family. Brain varieties are much tastier, but they have low yields and a short shelf life. If you are faced with the task of selling products through retail chains, then it is recommended to pay attention to universal varieties in order to make a profit.
Planting peas begins with a thorough inspection of the beans.This is important to do so as not to be disappointed in the shoots. Go through all the seeds and discard all the rotten, rotten and broken. Leave the remaining seeds in the solution with boric acid for about 15-30 minutes. After that, the dried beans can be planted in the soil.
There is another option. To do this, add 30 g of salt to a liter of water and place in a pea solution. All seeds that have emerged to the surface will have to be thrown away, and the rest will be removed from the solution and dried, scattered on paper. Now the seed is completely ready for use. If you are not ready to start today, put everything in a cotton bag.
Planting peas in the ground
As mentioned above, the seeds can be soaked. But this method is good in the case when you have missed time and you need to urgently make up for it. The rest is continuous inconvenience. First, the landing process itself is complicated. Wet peas are much more difficult to distribute in the wells. But this stuff, much more important temperature factor. If the landing occurs in June, when the frost has passed, then soaking does not threaten the plant with anything. Much worse if disembarking takes place in May, when different scenarios are still possible.Peas are not afraid of chills, so you can not worry about frosts, but only if you sow dry peas. Otherwise, the embryos of plants receive a signal for active growth and development, because there is a lot of warm water around. And after that they are laid in a rather cold and dry ground, where you need to urgently change the program. Many beans simply will not survive such cataclysms.
To seedlings were friendly
Peas in the garden willingly grow and bear fruit, but let's find out what conditions can be considered optimal. It is best if peas are sown at 4-6 degrees Celsius. Therefore, it is good if disembarkation occurs in early spring. If the area under the peas is small, stretch the film so that the earth warms up. Then in April it will be possible to make crops, and in June enjoy fresh peas. The plant maintains light frosts, to -4aboutC, therefore, it is possible not to use additional covering material. Sowing peas is best done in a sunny place. He is able to survive a moderate shadow, but the number of pods may decrease.
Since it is supposed to grow peas in the open ground in just a half to two months, the plant needs a sufficient amount of moisture and nutrients.In principle, care is not much different from the one demanded by other vegetables. It is especially important to produce regular watering, always at the root. The amount of moisture strongly depends on the air temperature and the place of landing. The hotter the street and the sunnier the place, the more water the peas need. Despite the fact that the rhizome grows into a depth of one and a half meters, the bushes will not grow without watering.
Immediately after landing
Care of crops of peas becomes simpler, the older they will be. In fact, the rules are quite simple:
- Land with seeds planted in it is very important to cover the film for several days. After the first shoots appear, it is removed, but now you need to create protection from feathery destroyers. While in the garden still have nothing to profit, delicate plants will be under threat.
- Soon it will be necessary to loosen the soil, you can even spud the plants a little. Usually this procedure is performed 10-15 days after the emergence of shoots.
- Fertilizer for peas contribute when the plant has reached 10 cm in height. Usually mineral fertilizers are used for this. Repeat the procedure after two to three weeks. If organic matter was introduced into the soil before planting, then this can be limited to.
- Watering seedlings should be carried out regularly, but in small portions, otherwise planting may rot. And when the peas begin to bloom, you can increase to one bucket per square meter.
It is difficult to say how often water the peas. It should be based on the temperature outside and the state of the bed. If you go far to the country house, and the days are very hot, then it is recommended to mulch the soil well.
Even before flowering must necessarily tie up the bushes. If they lie on the ground, part of the crop will rot, and the ovary will be much smaller. Particularly afraid to remain without a garter varieties of giants, that is, the most productive. Installation of the support provides airing and warming up of the plant. Additionally, farmers note that a vertical arrangement avoids a number of diseases.
There are a lot of ways to install support for peas:
- Save time. In this case, the seeds are sown on a bed randomly or in rows. Similarly, sticks from branches are stuck into the soil. Too many branches will not be required. In fact, you need to give support to only a few plants. All others will hold on to them.The rods can be located at a distance of 40 cm from each other.
- Nesting location. It is very convenient to prepare the wells, in which 5-8 peas are arranged in a circle. In the center put one rod.
- Plastic mesh. If it is available, then the scheme is even more simple. Seeds are sown in two grooves, between which establish a mesh.
- A support on a twine. While the peas are still small, the sticks are set at a distance of 1 meter along the edges and in the middle of the garden. Then these sticks are wrapped with twine at a height of 30 cm, creating a net. Twine stretch along the contour, diagonally, in width. As soon as the plants rise to it, they cling and will not fall anywhere else.
- Tents These are the simplest designs that are made of flexible branches. You sow two strips of peas and put rods on both sides of them and tie the tops.
The supports are installed while the plants are still very small. As soon as they rise above the ground, you need to tie up young seedlings. Then they will grow themselves, clinging to the branches. Peas usually grow quickly. If you see that the bush is sitting in place, most likely it lacks nutrients.In this case, you need to make additional feeding. As you remember, the first was carried out when the plant reached a height of 5-8 cm, and the second - in two weeks. Repeat the procedure can not be more than once every 14 days.
Since even a beginning gardener can grow peas in the open ground, there will definitely be a good harvest. The main task of the gardener is protection from weeds, loosening the soil, timely installation of supports.
Tillage under the pea involves the obligatory digging. This is necessary in order to remove all the larvae and pests that are hidden in the depths. The most common pests of peas are the pea moth, kernels and acacia moth. It is very important to take measures to protect the plants, since it will be a shame to harvest the beans, each of which contains several worms. So, the main measure of protection from the moth is early sowing of plants. The weevil spreads along with the seed, to prevent its spread in the garden, it is necessary to withstand the seeds in a salt solution and remove the pop-up plants. But against the backfill, deep plowing of the site and treatment with insecticides work well. Pea leaves are indicative of the diagnosis of fungal and bacterial infections.If they begin to curl and dry up, then you need to take urgent measures.
55 days after sowing peas, it is time to harvest the beans. Consumer properties of green peas directly depend on how much time it was done. In most areas where this crop is cultivated, the optimum time comes 18-20 days after flowering. If we consider the brain varieties, then in 22-24 days. The number of fees may also vary. In early ripening varieties - up to 4-5 times per summer, in late ones - up to 8 times. Harvesting young pods should be done daily or every other day.
Gardeners use a simple technique that allows you to extend the harvest period. To do this, they sow crops with different maturity or make several beds of the same variety, but plant seeds in the soil in stages, with an interval of 2-3 weeks. The last sowing is done 60 days before the onset of the first frost. If the area allows, it will be possible to grow so many beans that it is enough to freeze and make canned food, eat fresh peas. This plant gives surprisingly tasty and healthy fruits that help the hostess to diversify the menu of their household.
For storage of beans is best to use glass containers.The jar is closed and cleaned in a dark place. But it is undesirable to use polyethylene.
Instead of conclusion
Planting peas in the garden is an easy task that any gardener can do regardless of the level of training. By following the rules of care, you can get a good harvest. The main thing is to plant the peas as early as possible, regularly water and feed the bushes, and also install supports that will significantly increase the yield. Peas are an amazing plant, the fruits of which can be consumed fresh, dried and frozen, canned. Fresh and frozen salads and appetizers are prepared, and dried salads are perfect for making soups and mashed potatoes throughout the year.