Industrial Revolution: the nature and consequences
The industrial revolution was the rapid development of technology in modern times and the transition from manual to machine labor. Due to technological innovations, the social, political, and economic conditions of Europe and the whole world have undergone significant transformations. At the same time, the industrial revolution is not an instantaneous process. Its duration is traditionallystretch from the second half of the XIII century to the beginning of XX. And a number of scientists adhere to the point of view that this process does not end to this day, as evidenced by the ever accelerating pace of technology development in our time, when many new products become obsolete within a few years.
Industrial Revolution in England
Traditionally, this country is called the ancestor of the technological revolution in modern times. Already in the 1760s and 80s, revolutionary changes were achieved here in a number of the most important areas of heavy and light industry.For example, the invention of the spinning machine and its distribution throughout the island led to the fact that England became the largest supplier of fabrics for the European and American markets. The creation of a steam engine made it possible to build ships of a new type - faster and more ergonomic, which confirmed the British domination of the sea. Epochalchanges have occurred in land transport. Thus, the railways that had appeared entangled the entire state by the middle of the 19th century and became a new word in the possibility of communication between remote regions of the country — the transportation of goods, people, and animals was facilitated and accelerated. Opened up completely new features! Important changes have undergone and heavy industry. Thus, the appearance of a milling machine and a number of other similar inventions significantly stimulated the development of mechanical engineering. The quality of the metal itself has significantly improved due to the fact that now, when it was smelted, it was not coal that was used as a fuel material, but coke. This allowed England to abandon the export metal, covering its growing needs, and send the released funds to other industries.
The Industrial Revolution in Europe
Soon, the rapid pace of technological development spread to the continent, giving Germany, France, the Netherlands, Russia their own factories of heavy and light industry. However, this process in different countries did not occur simultaneously. For example, in France and Belgium, the industrial revolution began immediately after England, at the end of the thirteenth century, but he reached Germany and Russia only in the 1830-1840s. However, this did not mean mandatory outsiderism. Germany, being still a lagging country in the middle of the century, by 1900 was able to significantly increase its technological and military potential, and at the beginning of the 20th century with a delay in joining the division of spheres of influence in other parts of the world (the fact that almost all world territories and led to a forceful resolution of the issue - the First World War).
Impact on society
The industrial revolution was not limited to changes only in the technological part. It inevitably entailed social, political and economic consequences, generating new classes of society (workers, the bourgeoisie), accelerating the growth of cities (urbanization).The complication of social processes led to the birth of new political and socio-economic doctrines and movements, which soon exploded in the mood of the masses.