Memoria. Leon Trotsky
Lev Davidovich Trotsky (Bronstein, November 7, 1879 - 1940) was born in the village of Yanovka, Kherson Province, in the family of a wealthy landowner. He studied in a real school in Odessa, then in Nikolaev, where he joined one of the first Social Democratic circles and began conducting illegal propaganda among the workers. He married a revolutionary Alexandra Sokolovskaya. In 1898 he was arrested and in 1899 sentenced to four years of exile in the Irkutsk province. In exile he had two daughters. In 1902, he managed to escape from exile abroad with the help of a fake passport to the name Trotsky, since that name has become his pseudonym.
Trotsky settled in London, where he became close with the leaders of Russian Social Democracy. In October 1902, he met Lenin, on whose recommendation he became an Iskra employee. But already at the 2nd congress of the RSDLP in August 1903, he spoke out against Lenin and joined the Menshevik faction, headed by Y. Martov.
In 1903 - 1904, Trotsky worked on the theory of permanent revolution.In 1903, he married Natalia Sedova in Paris.
In 1905, Leon Trotsky illegally returned to Russia. He headed the St. Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies, was arrested and again sentenced to exile in Siberia. He fled again and went to London, where in 1907 he took part in the Fifth Congress of the RSDLP. This time he did not join either the Bolshevik faction or the Menshevik faction.
In 1908 - 1912 he published the newspaper Pravda in Vienna. When the Bolshevik faction began publishing its newspaper Pravda since 1912, Trotsky was not happy with this, but could not do anything and stopped publishing its Pravda. At the general party conference in Vienna in August 1912, the anti-Bolshevik "August Bloc" created the Mensheviks together with the leaders of the Mensheviks.
During the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, Trotsky was a front-line correspondent for the Kievskaya Mysl newspaper. When the First World War settled in Switzerland, then moved to France. Trotsky took a consistent anti-war stance, demanding that the socialist parties of all countries renounce any cooperation with the governments of the countries leading the war. He published a pamphlet entitled “War and the International”, where he called for the creation in a revolutionary way “of the United States of Europe”. In 1916 he was expelled from France to Spain, where he was arrested and exiled to the United States.From January 1917 he collaborated in the New World newspaper, published in New York.
In March 1917, when news came of the overthrow of the monarchy in Russia, Trotsky decided to return to his homeland. However, he was detained by the Canadian authorities as a person who could damage the military efforts of the Allies. Some time later, he was released thanks to the intercession of the Russian Provisional Government and in May arrived in Petrograd.
Having headed first the small group of Social Democrats “inter-district”, Leon Trotsky soon joined with his supporters in the Bolshevik party, where he quickly became one of the leaders. He played a huge role in the "propaganda" and the transition to the side of the Bolsheviks soldiers of the rapidly decaying Petrograd garrison. After an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Provisional Government in July 1917, Lenin and Zinoviev went underground to avoid arrest. Trotsky, who declared his solidarity with them, was arrested and imprisoned in the "Crosses". Released on September 15 after the collapse of the Kornilov revolt.
Elected to the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party, Trotsky became its actual leader during this period.He supported the idea of Lenin on the need for an immediate uprising, opposed by the majority of Bolshevik leaders. Thanks to the talent of the speaker he gained immense popularity among the workers and soldiers of Petrograd. On October 12 (25), he initiated the creation by the Council of a Military Revolutionary Committee to defend Petrograd from counter-revolutionary forces. He led the preparation of the armed intervention and was its actual leader.
In the first Bolshevik government, Leon Trotsky received the post of People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs. He organized the defense of Petrograd from the troops of General Peter Krasnov attacking him. He led the negotiations in Brest-Litovsk, tightening them in the hope of a rapid spread of the revolution in Europe. After the ultimatum of Germany and the threat of Lenin to resign if the peace treaty was not signed, Trotsky was forced to conclude the Brest peace.
After that, Leon Trotsky resigned from the post of the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, but was quickly appointed to new posts. All of them were associated with the management of the army. From March 14, 1918, he became People's Commissar for Military Affairs, from March 28 - Chairman of the Supreme Military Council, from April - People's Commissar for Maritime Affairs, from September 6 - Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the RSFSR.
In fact, Leon Trotsky became the creator of the Red Army and its commander in the years of the civil war, having achieved that it became a cohesive force, and imposed strict discipline among the troops. He led military operations from a special train, which was turned into a mobile headquarters and moved from one front to another.
In March 1919, Leon Trotsky became a member of the first Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.). Participated in the creation of the Comintern. From March 20 to December 10, 1920 temporarily performed the duties of People's Commissar of Railways, restoring the work of railway transport with harsh measures.
During the intraparty discussion of the trade unions (late 1920 - early 1921), Trotsky demanded that the methods of “war communism” and the militarization of the unions be maintained in the government of the country. He insisted that industrialization in the RSFSR should be built on the system of forced labor and universal collectivization. In fact, with the end of the Civil War, Trotsky was not going to demobilize the army, but, on the contrary, to militarize the national economy.
By 1922, when Lenin's health began to deteriorate and he retired, the Politburo began a struggle for power between the united Kamenev, Zinoviev and Stalin on the one hand, and Trotsky on the other.Gradually, he was pushed aside from the real levers of power by the bureaucratic party apparatus.
After Lenin’s death, Trotsky’s opportunities declined even more, but he could still openly criticize the policies pursued by his opponents. However, he did not use support among the old Bolsheviks, rather they saw danger in him. At the Thirteenth Congress in May 1924, Trotsky was sharply criticized. In response, in the fall he published an article entitled “Lessons of October,” in which he condemned the behavior of Zinoviev and Kamenev during the October Revolution and blamed them for the failure of the communist uprising in Germany in 1923.
In January 1925, Trotsky was forced to resign as chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council and subsequently held only secondary posts in the administration of the national economy. Soon Kamenev and Zinoviev, now Stalin’s competitors, also lost power.
In 1926, Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev headed the so-called united opposition, which sharply criticized the Stalinist leadership. However, all key positions in the party and state apparatus were already in the hands of Stalin.Trotsky was removed from the Politburo and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) for "anti-party activity" and "petty-bourgeois bias", and in November 1927 he was expelled from the party. In January 1928 he was sent into exile in Almaty. In exile, he continued his opposition activities, maintaining contact with like-minded people. In 1929, Trotsky and his family were expelled from the Soviet Union.
In 1929–1933, Leon Trotsky lived with his wife and eldest son Lev Sedov in Turkey on the Prince Islands in the Sea of Marmara. Many governments refused to accept Trotsky, and he was forced to move from country to country. In 1933 he moved to France, and in 1935 - to Norway. He published the Opposition Bulletin, wrote the books My Life, The History of the Russian Revolution, and the Devoted Revolution. He was an active critic of Stalin’s policies, industrialization and collectivization, calling the regime established in the USSR "the bureaucratic rebirth of the dictatorship of the proletariat." According to Trotsky, "the lead ass of the bureaucracy outweighed the head of the revolution." At the end of 1936, Leon Trotsky left for Mexico, where he settled in a villa on the outskirts of Mexico City, Koyokane. In 1938, he united groups of his supporters around the world in the Fourth International.
On August 20, 1940, Soviet intelligence agent Ramon Mercader, who had penetrated Trotsky’s entourage, came to him, saying that he wanted to show his manuscript. When Trotsky began to read the paper, Mercader struck him on the head with an ice ax hidden under his coat. He had this wound on August 21, 1940, Leon Trotsky died. He was buried in the courtyard of his house in Koyokan.
What is famous for
An outstanding leader of the Bolshevik Party, a talented orator and organizer who played a key role in their rise to power and ensured victory in the Civil War. The creator of the Red Army. He made vigorous efforts to establish strict discipline, did it with an iron hand. In one of his orders it was said: “if any part retreats voluntarily, the commissioner of the part will be shot first, the commander will be shot second.” Trotsky ordered the execution of every tenth soldier of the Second Petrograd Regiment, who had arbitrarily fled from his combat positions. Attracted to the military service of the former royal officers ("military experts"). Trotsky's personal energy and courage more than once decided the outcome of the battles. He was one of the initiators of the Red Terror and the shooting of hostages in the Civil War.The ideologist of Trotskyism, whose adherents remain as an ultra-left political force in a number of countries.
What you need to know
The defeat of Trotsky in the political struggle against Stalin caused the death of many of his relatives. His first wife, Alexandra Sokolovskaya, was shot in 1938. The son Lev Sedov died the same year after an operation for appendicitis at a Russian clinic in Paris, there are suspicions that agents of the NKVD were involved in his death. The second son, Sergey Sedov, was shot. They also shot the wife of Lev Sedov and the husband of Zinaida Volkova, two sons of Trotsky’s sister Olga. Trotsky's daughter Nina Nevelson died of tuberculosis in 1928 during his exile in Alma-Ata. Another daughter, Zinaida Volkova, was treated for tuberculosis in Germany and committed suicide following a request to leave the country immediately.
“The arena of historical action is becoming immensely great, and the globe is insultingly small. Cast iron strips rail and wire telegraph put the entire globe in an artificial network, like a school globe. The village was the world before the invasion of capital. And then capital came and devastated the reservoirs of the village, these kennels of the national stupidity, and the stone chests of the cities filled the human flesh and the human brain tightly.Through all the obstacles, he physically brought the peoples of the earth together, and on the basis of their material intercourse, he led the work of their spiritual assimilation. He has stirred up old cultures to the bottom and mercilessly dissolved in their market cosmopolitanism those combinations of inertia and laziness, which were once considered to be national characters. ”
Leon Trotsky "Our Fatherland in Time" (1908)
“The arrest of the Synod and the Patriarch must be recognized as necessary, but not now, but in about 10-15 days. Information about Shuya to publish, the perpetrators of the Shuya priests and laity - the Tribunal within a week (conodov - shoot). During the same week, deliver the process of priests for plundering church valuables (there are not a few such facts). From the moment of publication of Shuya, the press took a mad tone, giving a summary of the rebellious priests' attempts in Smolensk, St. Petersburg, etc. After that, arrest the Synod. Proceed to seizure throughout the country, completely without working on churches that do not have any significant values. ”
From a letter of Leon Trotsky to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) (1922)
“To accept a workers' revolution in the name of an uplifting deception means not only to reject, but also to slander it.All the social illusions that mankind has only hurt - in the field of religion, poetry, law, morality, philosophy - have served to deceive and bind the oppressed. The socialist revolution disrupts the covers of illusions, “elevating”, that is, degrading deceptions, washes (with blood) the reality from the reality and is as strong as realistic, expedient, strategic, mathematical ”.
Leon Trotsky "Literature and Revolution" (1923)
“A revolutionist, when necessary and possible, breaks down historical obstacles with violence, when it is impossible — bypasses, when it cannot be circumvented — stubbornly and patiently undermines and crushes. He - revolutionary because it is not afraid to blow, ruthless use of violence, he knows the historical price. He always seeks to unleash his destructive and creative work in full, that is, from each given historical situation to extract the maximum of what it can provide for the advancement of the revolutionary class. ”
Leon Trotsky "The tasks of communist education" (1923)
“During its rise, the revolution could have been rude and cruel, but it was true. She openly said what she thought. Stalin’s policy is deceptive.This expresses its reactionary nature. The reaction is generally false, because it has to hide its real goals from the people. The reaction on the foundations of the proletarian revolution is doubly false. It can be said without any exaggeration that the Thermidorian regime of Stalin is the most deceptive regime in world history. For fourteen years now, the author of these lines is destined to serve as the main target of Thermidorian lies. ”
From the preface to Leo Trotsky’s book "The Stalin's Crimes" (1937)
“The very next morning the first plenary session was held. The picture has completely changed. Trotsky was a man of a completely different warehouse compared to Ioffe. Not very large, sharp and piercing eyes through the sharp glasses of the glasses looked at his counterpart with a drilling and critical eye. The expression on his face clearly indicated that he would have better ended the negotiations with a couple of grenades that were not very nice for him, having thrown them across the green table, if it had at least been coordinated with the general political line. Since I knew that Trotsky was especially proud of his dialectic, I was determined to avoid everything that could give him material for agitation among the German socialists ... "
From the memoirs of the German diplomat Richard von Kühlmann about the negotiations in Brest-Litovsk
11 facts about Lev Trotsky
* A further relative of Trotsky (daughter of a cousin) was the poetess Vera Inber.
* Trotsky used a number of pseudonyms: Perot, Antid Oto, L. Sedov, Old Man and others. His sons chose the name Sedov as official.
* In July 1917, Trotsky personally repulsed the crowd of the then popular Social Revolutionary leader, Minister of Agriculture of the Provisional Government Viktor Chernov, although he was a political opponent of Trotsky.
* Before the attempt on Trotsky was made by Mercader, communist artist David Siqueiros tried to kill him. When the murderers broke into him and started shooting, Trotsky managed to hide with his wife and grandson under the bed and survived.
* Ramon Mercader received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin for the murder of Trotsky.
* Leon Trotsky became the prototype of the Snowball boar from Orwell's Animal Farm.
* Many quotations from the works of Leon Trotsky were actively used in official propaganda of the USSR up to the 1980s without specifying the author. Among them are “gnawing the granite of science”, “the link between the city and the village”, “the socialist fatherland in danger”, “the son of the working people”. It was Trotsky who called Mikhail Kalinin "the All-Russian elder".
* There is a version that Moidodyr in the fairy tale of Korney Chukovsky is a caricature of Trotsky. Moidodyr's words “Shame and Shame” were repeated several times in Trotsky’s articles on literature, in which he criticized Chukovsky’s fairy tales.
* The name Trotsk was borne by the city of Gatchina (in 1923 - 1929) and the city of Ivaschenkovo (in 1918 - 1929, now Chapayevsk).
* Lev Trotsky's great-granddaughter boy Nora Volkova became a famous psychiatrist in the USA She heads the National Institute for the Study of Drug Abuse (National Institute on Drug Abuse).
* Trotsky's namesake was originally an eminent domestic classic philologist Iosif Tronsky, who was forced to change his last name in 1938.