Meyerhold Theater in Moscow: repertoire, actors, address
The Meyerhold Theater was founded in 1920 and existed just under two decades, but left behind a rich cultural heritage. Its leader is considered one of the founders of the modern theater. Now his business is being continued by the Meyerhold Center. This is a creative platform where talented directors, directors and actors can show themselves. Consider in this article the history of the theater, its address, repertoire and troupe, and also describe in detail about the modern CIM.
Where is the theater of Meyerhold?
Originally for the theater, founded in 1920, a small building was allocated, located on Bolshaya Sadovaya Street, at number 20. It was there, on a small stage, passed the first performances. The theater was closed several times, and new projects of the director appeared in its place, but all the productions were still held in the building on Bolshaya Sadovaya. The theater moved from here only after its unification with the Institute of Musical Drama. It became located at the address: Sadovaya-Triumfalnaya Street, 20.Unfortunately, both buildings have not survived to our time. In the 40s, the metro station was opened on the site of the theater, and then, in the 70s, residential buildings were erected here.
The heir to the first projects of the director was the modern Meyerhold Theater. Its address is as follows: Novoslobodskaya Street, Building 23. It is located in the same district as the first theater. You can reach it by metro. The nearest station, Mendeleevskaya, is located 50 meters from the theater building. From here, it can be reached on foot or by bus. The stations Novoslobodskaya (270 meters) and Belorusskaya (900 meters) are slightly further removed. They are located in several bus stops from the building. For spectators who came by car, equipped with car parking. The Meyerhold Center (theater) at Novoslobodskaya is open every day until 18:00. Its visitors can not only purchase tickets for performances, but also visit art exhibitions, creative workshops and meetings with actors.
Vsevolod Meyerhold - founder of the theater
The future theater director was born in Penza into a family of Russified Germans who were engaged in winemaking. His real name is KarlMayergold. He was the eighth child in the family and was born in 1874. In 1895, he graduated from a male gymnasium in Penza and entered the Moscow University law faculty. However, he did not study there for long. A year later, it translates intotheatrical musicalSchool where begins training under the leadership of Nemirovich-Danchenko. At the same time he accepted the Orthodox faith, having been baptized under the name of Vsevolod. After graduation, he first worked as an actor. His theatrical debut was the role of Vasily Shuisky in the play "Tsar Fedor Ivanovich".
In 1902 he left the theater and began working as a director, heading his own troupe. At first they stopped in Kherson, but in 1905, Meyerhold, having received an invitation from Stanislavsky, returned to Moscow to prepare several performances. However, in October 1905 the studio was closed, and Meyerhold was forced to return to the province. But in 1906 he was invited by Vera Komissarzhevskaya to Petersburg. In one year he staged 13 performances. Before the revolution, the director worked in the imperial theaters of the capital. In 1918 he joined the Bolshevik Party, and already in 1920 opened his own theater, which he led until 1938. In the late 1930s, the Soviet government began hounding the director.In 1939 he was arrested, and in February 1940 he was shot.
The history of the theater
The first Meyerhold Theater (Moscow) was opened in 1920. The director departed from the idea of the non-political nature of art and became involved in performances in which the events of the Civil War were vividly described. For example, during one of the productions, the latest news from the front was read. In some performances took part soldiers of the Red Army. The first production of the new theater was the play "Dawns" by the Belgian playwright EmilVerharna. At the same time, creative workshops begin to work at the theater, which immediately received the status of state ones. They were trained in acting and directing, and the first set of students took place in the summer of 1921. The workshops opened the world to SergeiEisenstein, SergeyYutkevichand Zinaida Reich.
However, in 1921, the theater was closed, but a year later he resumed work, now being called the Actor's Theater. In 1922, Meyerhold combines his workshopwith schoolGITIS. Together they formed the GITIS Theater, but it did not last long. In 1923 it was closed due to the creative differences of the leadership.On its basis, the Theater named after Meyerhold is created. The first performance of the renewed theater was the production of "Earth on end" by S. M. Tretyakov, dedicated to the five-year anniversary of the creation of the Red Army. For the props, Meyerhold addressed him personally to Trotsky. In 1926, the theater received the status of the state.
Theater Meyerhold in the 30s of XX century
In the early 1930s, the party leadership expressed its discontent with the theater’s repertoire. It almost did not include productions of Soviet playwrights. Meyerhold ignored Gorky’s plays, considering them unsuitable for his theater. Already in 1930, the government banned the performance of Mayakovsky’s Banya. Two years after the final rehearsal, the production of "Suiciders" was banned.Erdman. The party was not satisfied with the satirical works that the director loved so much. He was often reproached for his connection with Trotsky, who was declared a traitor. However, the best productions of the theater were still successful. In 1930, Meyerhold troupe toured the cities of Germany and France. In 1935, construction began on a new building for the theater. At the same time, critical articles appeared in the press increasingly condemning the work of Meyerhold. In 1936, he officially made the report "Meyerhold againstMeyerhold"but this did not help save his theater.
On January 7, 1937, Pravda published a decree ordering the liquidation of the Meyerhold Theater. The director was accused of creating an antisocial atmosphere in the performances, excessive narcissism and lack of self-criticism. The theater, according to party workers, became alien to the Soviet audience. He was also reproached for ignoring the anniversary of the 20th anniversary of the October Revolution, as well as in the absence of Soviet plays in the repertoire. January 8, the actors played their last performance. They became the production of "Inspector" N. V. Gogol. The director himself was soon arrested and shot. He was rehabilitated only in 1961.
Theater repertoire in the 20-30s
After the revolution, many theaters lacked advice.works to create an extensive repertoire. Meyerhold preferred to embody translated and partially modified plays by European authors on stage. The works of Russian classics reinterpreted. Characters were placed in a modern environment, and new scenes and cues were added to the script. Over the years, the Meyerhold Theater has prepared the following prominent performances for the public:
- "Forest" A.N.Ostrovsky.
- "Inspector" N. V. Gogol.
- "Woe to mind" - a play based on the work "Woe from Wit" by A. S. Griboyedov.
- "Bug" by V. Mayakovsky.
- "Land on end" and "Rychi, China" S. M. Tretyakov.
- "Mandate" N.Erdman
- "Commander-2" I.L.Selvinsky
- "Shot" A. I.Bezymensky
- "Introduction" Yu. P. Herman.
- "33 fainting", "Bear" and "Jubilee" A. P. Chekhov.
In his studios, the director independently trained the actors. He prepared them according to his own program, based on biomechanics - a system of exercises invented by Meyerhold himself, which was to prepare the actor for the immediate implementation of any action on the theatrical stage. In his opinion, an artist should create not a person on the stage, but a common collective image. At the same time, the director was famous for his despotic character, which many actors of the Meyerhold Theater could not stand. During the existence of the theater, the following artists played on its stage:
- Ilya Ilyinsky.
- Nikolai Bogolyubov.
- Zinaida Reich.
- Gennady Michurin.
- Yevgeny Samoilov.
- Maria Babanova.
- Nikolay Okhlopkov.
The Meyerhold Theater, whose photos have not been preserved, was closed, but its work continues to live.In 1991, with the support of the Union of Theater Workers of Russia, an experimental creative platform was opened. Soon it became known as the Meyerhold Center. In 1999, by decision of the government of Moscow, TsIM became a state-owned unitary enterprise. The center considers as its goal the revival, further development and dissemination of creative ideas.Meyerhold. Beginning actors and directors can embody original creative ideas on his stage. The TsIM works on the basis of a children's theater, which puts on stage both classical performances and new works for children.
Meyerhold Theater Scene - The Realtransformer hallequipped with the latest technology. If necessary, it can be lowered and raised, and the seats for the audience are easily removed. Often the performances here take place in the lobby, on the stairs, in the open air, in the cafe. The TsIM also hosts various theater festivals. The Blackbox's own competition, which can take part in original works created by novice directors, also works here. Winners get the right to put their performance on the stage of the CIM.The School of Theater Leader, an educational program for the preparation of theater directors, directors, artists, managers and marketing specialists, is also open here.
The repertoire of the Meyerhold Theater is regularly updated with original and experimental productions. Often here theaters from other cities and countries present their performances. The cost of one ticket will cost the viewer 750 rubles. For large families discounts. We list the main productions offered by the poster compiled in the coming months:
- "One day we will all be happy" by Vyacheslav Chebotar.
- "Hotel California" by Sasha Denisova.
- "Two ladies in the direction of the North" OlgaBeshuli
- "Sasha, take out the garbage" VictorRyzhakova
- "The story of Siegfried andBrunhilde"Ksenia Zorina.
- "Mary Stuart" by Friedrich Schiller.
- "Joint experiences" Victoria Privalova.
- "Swan" YuriKvyatkovsky
- "12 exploits of Gagarin" by Oleg Glushkov.
There is no permanent theater troupe in the Center. Most often, the actors here come along with directors who are preparing their own production. Often, CIM becomes a platform for beginners.Over the years of the Center’s existence, the following artists have appeared on its stage:
- Rustam Ahmadeev.
- Ilya Barabanov.
- Sergey Bystrov.
- Eugene Weiss.
- Daria Demidova.
- Svetlana Ivanova-Sergeeva.
- Vladimir Logvinov.
- Rudolf Levitsky.
- Andrey Smirnov.
Reviews of CIM
The modern Meyerhold Theater (Moscow) receives good reviews from its visitors. In addition to a diverse repertoire, viewers note that the CIM is located very close to the metro, so it is convenient to get to it even to people without a car. The staff of the Center respects visitors. 2-3 minutes before the start of the performance, they are escorted into the hall, and the performance will not begin until all of them are in place. The convenient location of the seats for the audience is another advantage of the theater. The last rows are a little higher than the front, so all visitors can easily see what is happening on the scene. Some visitors note that the hall is poorly ventilated, so by the middle of the performance it becomes very stuffy. Sometimes productions start with a delay.
Instead of an afterword
At one time, the Meyerhold Theater was an original and innovative institution, and the eminent director himself was considered a reformer of acting.CIM is a modern playground that continues to actively develop theatrical art. Here often put the original productions, which you can hardly see in other theaters. Young and talented actors who bring something of their own to the work also play on the stage. The CIM is worth a visit to all connoisseurs of modern art, as well as to people who are tired of classical theater performances.