Nizhny Novgorod, Kremlin: history, sights and interesting facts
Nizhny Novgorod is one of the most beautiful and historically valuable cities in Russia. The most important, most amazing and most popular attraction of the city is the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. For its sake, tourists come to the city not only from other cities of Russia, but also from other countries. Visiting Nizhny Novgorod, the Kremlin is definitely worth seeing first thing. Nizhny Novgorod is just a storehouse of interesting places for an inquisitive traveler.
According to the chronicles, in 1221, at the request and order of the Grand Duke Yuri Vsevolodovich, Nizhny Novgorod was founded. To protect the new territory, fortifications made of earth and wood were used. In 1374, the first attempt was made to replace the wooden fortifications with a stone structure. This year was remembered in the history of Nizhny Novgorod by the construction of the white-stone Kremlin. During the reign of Ivan III, the city becomes a watchdog.Here the military meet to discuss further actions of Moscow against Kazan. Of course, the prince understood that the protection of the city should be strengthened, which led to the beginning of work on the construction of the fortress walls. The Kremlin in Nizhny Novgorod in the form that people can see now began to be laid in the year 1500, with the construction of Tverskaya, now the Tower Storage Room. Mukhkhamed-Amiin’s raids stopped work in 1505. It was only in 1908 that other towers of the Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod were built. All work on its construction was completed in 2016. The construction is supervised by an architect sent from Moscow by Pietro Francesco. Until 1697, the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin (Nizhny Novgorod) was repeatedly besieged, but it never gave up. After this period, he lost military significance.
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin: description
To build the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin masters had to spend a lot of time and effort. The construction differed in its time inconceivable length of two kilometers. The entire length of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin (Nizhny Novgorod) had thirteen towers. Five of which were intended for passage and served as a gate, eight were deaf.At that time, the Dmitrievskaya Tower of the Kremlin was equipped with an unprecedented masterpiece of Russian architecture - a stone bridge with a diversion tower. Despite the fact that the Kremlin had a protective function, it, in turn, was also covered by a special structure - a dry moat. In depth, this protective mechanism took from two and a half to four meters and in some places was filled with groundwater. Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin (Nizhny Novgorod) had an army of standing garrison soldiers. According to the data of 1621, twenty-two guns were installed on the territory of the Kremlin. The guns were stored here mainly for small-caliber fortress, there were also serf guns and cold weapons.
After the collapse of the USSR, many cities were left without a means of livelihood, and even more so for development, such a fate awaited Nizhny Novgorod. The Kremlin slowly began to collapse, and in 2005 dangerous cracks were noticed on it. Also, brickwork began to crumble, and the structure in turn began to grow over with moss and lichen. The start of the restoration work was given in 2005. Since then, the main attraction again began to decorate Nizhny Novgorod.The Kremlin was really restored to a high level. But, unfortunately, some alterations modified the original appearance of the historical structure. The conduct of excursion activities on its territory also adversely affected the quality of the building. Souvenir shops, trade pavilions - all non-targeted uses of the Kremlin led to its gradual destruction. The pantry and the Dmitrievskaya tower were given to catering places; in Nikolskaya, informal gatherings were often held. As a result, the walls were prone to vandal antics and lost their historical charm. The Kremlin's Conception Tower (Nizhny Novgorod) was recreated in 2012. Since then, the ring of the walls has closed.
Thirteen is a lucky number
Today, tourists who have passed the route Nizhny Novgorod - the Kremlin - its towers can see all thirteen of them with their own eyes. A brief description of each of the towers below. These are towers such as:
- Georgievskaya- owes its name to the nearby St. George Church. It has retained a unique square shape, in contrast to many of the modified in the process of restoration of the towers.In the past, it was equipped with a drawbridge, as in the most elite castles of the feudal lords.
- Borisoglebskaya- It is named in honor of the neighboring church of Boris and Gleb. For all the time of its existence, it was most often destroyed and re-created.
- Zachatievskaya- named after the Zachatievsky monastery, a two-tier tower in the shape of a square.
- White- according to its name, the tower in the best traditions of modernism from the outside has a white brick finish.
- Ivanovskaya- Standing near the temple of John the Baptist gave the tower the appropriate name.
- Hourly- the most technically equipped tower with a built-in chronometer of a giant size.
- North- This tower is the closest to the North Pole.
- Taynitskaya- The main stronghold of the defense of the Kremlin. Important things were kept in it, and also it contained a secret underground passage.
- Koromyslova- the name of the tower is associated with the beloved Novgorod legend, according to which the girl who was fleeing from the foes fought off with a rocker.
- Nikolskaya- at present, the Zelensky Congress is connected by a very useful pedestrian bridge.
- Pantry- tower storage for all sorts of supplies.
- Dmitrievskaya- The first stone tower of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, named after Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich. After multiple restorations, its appearance is significantly different from the original creation of antiquity.
- Gunpowder- a place of storage of gunpowder and other weapons and supplies.
Favorite legends of Novgorod
The most beloved and frequently discussed legend has a direct connection with the Koromyslova Tower. Historically, in 1520, Nizhny Novgorod fell under the siege of Astrakhan Tatars and their leader Said Giray. In order to capture the Kremlin, they crept to the walls of the coveted fruit. At that time, one of the local residents went to fetch water and, seeing the invaders, entered into an unequal battle with them. In the hands of a woman there was a rocker with which she beat ten Tatars to death. As a result, one of the survivors killed the woman with a saber, but this battle made the Tatars think. They decided that since such brave and strong girls are here, it’s better not to get involved with men at all. They thought and got out. The second legend says that this tower was built the very first. And in order to make it stronger, it was necessary to close at its base any living thing that first steps on this territory. This creature was a girl with a yoke, going for water.At first, the builders closed it at the base, but then they took pity and replaced it with a dragonfly, so that custom would still be respected.
Museum on the territory of the Kremlin
The museum in the Kremlin (Nizhny Novgorod) is one of the oldest public museums in Russia. The decision to open it followed in 1894 from the City Duma. On the occasion of the opening of the museum, the country's leadership dedicated to this event the release of twenty-five silver and three hundred bronze commemorative medals. They were solemnly presented to the direct participants in the creation of the museum and to the sponsors of the project. One of the first to visit the museum was the emperor Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra Feodorovna. It happened on the nineteenth of July 1896. For such important guests, the museum prepared a gift in the form of two gold medals of exclusive reflux. Initially, its location was the Dmitriev Tower of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. At this time, the museum consisted of two departments - historical and artistic. In parallel with the work of the museum, an exhibition organized by the Society of Artists of Historical Painting was held here. Subsequently, part of the exhibits went to the museum as a gift.In the museum you can see the unique works of great artists, including F. S. Rokotov, I. E. Repin, K. P. Bryullov, I. I. Shishkin, I. I. Levitan.
The territory of the Kremlin was littered with a huge number of buildings for various purposes. Here were located the magnificent mansions of the princely family, and all sorts of temples. Many of them were seriously injured or completely disappeared from the face of the earth after the Red Guard raids. Inside the Kremlin were the buildings of the barracks, the House of Soviets, the government, the philharmonic society and the art museum and others. But after a while, only some of them survived:
- The most ancient building of the Kremlin is the Archangel Michael Cathedral. The date of its foundation is the sixteenth century. It was here that the remains of Kozma Minin were buried at one time.
- Immortalized by the obelisk and monument of Minin and Pozharsky.
- Monument in honor of the founder George and St. Simon.
- Memorable Eternal Flame.
- Modern art museum, the building of which in the past was the provincial house.
- Former arms arsenal, which has become today the state center of modern art with the same name "Arsenal".
- Stretching from the Dmitrievskaya Tower of the Kremlin, the Walk of Fame, showing vehicles and combat weapons from the period of the Second World War.
In addition to these buildings, tourists can visit the walls of the Kremlin. You can get there through the Dmitriev tower, after making a nominal fee.
- Creating the legendary Kremlin, the architects took as a basis the work on the construction of casemates of Leonardo da Vinci. Nowhere in the country were there any systems of artillery and defense similar to those that were arranged in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.
- 2015 was the anniversary of the Kremlin - he was five hundred years old. In view of the strong fire, the entire fortress wall was destroyed in 1513. And only two years later, a brick building was erected on the ashes instead of a wooden structure.
- The scale of the structure is striking in its grandeur. The length of the Kremlin is two kilometers, while its height reaches twenty-two meters.
- During all five centuries of its existence, the Kremlin repeatedly experienced attempts at precipitation, but none of them was crowned with success.
- In the nineteenth century, the walls of almost every Nizhny Novgorod house were composed of bricks from the Kremlin.This is due to the fact that nobody watched the construction, and for local residents it was an additional way to save on construction materials. And only Alexander II was able to stop so much the barbaric behavior of Nizhny Novgorod, issuing an order to restore the historically significant cultural monument.
- Archaeologists believe the fortress towers are among the most mysterious and mysterious places. In their opinion, true treasures and important documents are hidden here. But it is impossible to carry out excavations here due to the risk of provoking landslides and the critical proximity of groundwater.
Christmas tree in the Kremlin (Nizhny Novgorod)
On the eve of the New Year holidays, a children's holiday is held on the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, which is similar in its scope to the main Christmas tree of the country. The Christmas tree in the Kremlin (Nizhny Novgorod) is held from the twenty-sixth of December to the sixth of January. The venue for a joyful family holiday is the Kremlin Concert Hall, located in the Philharmonic Hall. Usually more than a thousand Nizhny Novgorod children attend the event. The festive Christmas tree in the Kremlin (Nizhny Novgorod) is a bright and colorful event, in which guests are entertained by actors from the philharmonic and theater.In honor of the holiday, funny songs are played, funny games are played, good music is played, and all the guests unite the traditional magic dance. The most beautiful and fascinating highlight of the holiday is a musical fairy tale. A ticket to a festive event costs from three hundred to three hundred and thirty rubles. Those wishing to receive a children's gift must pay another three hundred and fifty rubles to the cost of the entrance ticket.
How to get there and where to stay
Tourists who want to mainly mark the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin should try to ensure that the chosen hotel is close to the historical center of the city. Nizhny Novgorod (Kremlin) is visited by curious tourists who want to go on an excursion immediately after the hotel. Thus, in order for a historic landmark to be within walking distance, you should choose the Nikola House Hotel, located four hundred meters from the Kremlin or the Monarch Hotel, which is only a hundred meters further. As for those guests of the city who need to get to the Kremlin by transport, the city runs a huge variety of fixed-route taxis.The most important thing is for them to indicate that the route goes through Minin and Pozharsky Square. The Nikolskaya Tower can be reached by minibuses 6, 41, 47, 71 and 72 and by bus number three. It is available for visits daily from ten to sixteen hours. Ticket offices, as well as in all places of excursions, stop their work forty minutes before the end of the work of the whole historical center. To the Dmitriev Tower go 34, 54, 81, 134 and other route taxis. You can also get to the Ivanovo Tower on them. Tickets for visiting the exhibition halls of the towers cost from forty to one hundred and fifty rubles per adult. The cost of children's tickets is about two times lower. For foreign tourists, the pricing system is different. Therefore, to clarify prices, it is best to contact the Kremlin administration by phone (the number is on the official website). You can see the Kremlin from the side of Bolshaya Pokrovskaya Street (Nizhny Novgorod). The Kremlin, whose address is very easy to remember, is located in Nizhny Novgorod on Minin and Pozharsky Square 6a.