Non-double standards: third floor in different cultures of the world
If it seems to you that the idea of people who do not consider themselves to be men, not women, appeared recently, then you are mistaken. So called the third gender, gender that does not fit into the binary system understanding of gender is not a new phenomenon. It existed in different cultures. for thousands of years.Indonesia: five genders
Sulawesi is a large island belonging to Indonesia, it is good known for its luxurious beaches and paradise resorts. One of the largest ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, the Bugis recognize the existence of four genders and one more, the fifth - a “meta-gender”.
The first two genders are just men and women, and two more are the names "kalalai" and "kalabai". Kalalai are anatomically women, but behave and live like men. Nor do they want to be men, they are located on the border of two sexes. For example, Kalalai can work as a mechanic, wear men's clothes all the time and live as men live. Usually live with other women and adopt children.
Kalabai, on the contrary, are physically men, but they are female of life. However, they also do not want to be women and are not willing to comply all restrictions prescribed to the female. Kalabaev often attracted to the organization of weddings, they also live usually with men.
Another half is Bissa. These are people who are not women or men, their role in society it is similar to the role of shamans or priests. They spend rituals, and it is believed that Bissu is closely related to the world of spirits. In the myths and the legends of the Bugis boussou play a central role in the processes of creating of the world.
Sulawesi is convinced that all five genders should coexist in peace and harmony.
South Asia: Hijri
The Hijras belong to the untouchable caste in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, in which includes representatives of the "third sex". These are people anatomically being men, but who dress and act like women.
According to custom, one can become Hijra only after the castration ritual, which usually conducted by a senior member of the community. Similar procedures by law banned in India, but they are often held underground, which is dangerous for life and health.
The role of hijr in society is twofold.On the one hand, they are asked for blessing, they come to weddings with no invitation, with impunity, and woe to him who dares to drive out the hijra - it is believed that they can put a curse on making a woman barren, and taking a man’s man’s force On the other hand, many hijri earn their living begging and prostitution. They are not easy to get a job. Hijri often face rape and mistreatment.
In the culture of the sapotecs of Oaxaca (southern Mexico), muso is a man who wears women's clothes. They can perform as women's work (sew, embroider and trade in the market), and men, for example, do decorations. Nowadays there are even politicians among them.
Usually, mushes constantly wear women's clothing, but there are those who wear its only on holidays. For local men, it’s normal to live like women and mushes. The mushes themselves can marry women and have children, others prefer men. Thanks to the mush in Oaxaca Many tourists come to admire such a wonder.
Every year in Oaxaca, the Vela de Las Intrepidas festival takes place - “the vigil fearless ", when thousands of Musha go to the parade and spend their the ceremony.Even Catholic priests are participating in the parade, showing that even the church accepts mushes.
Katois are men who deliberately decided to become women. Sometimes they are in English called "ladyboys". Some Katois are limited to disguises and women's habits, others undergo a full course hormone therapy, remove Adam's apple and increase the chest.
Strictly speaking, the phenomenon of katoi is not so much a case of the “third sex”. It originated in Thailand during the war of the United States and Vietnam, when in 1962 between the United States and Thailand was signed an agreement on the provision of territory Thailand under the US military base. This led to the rapid development of the region. Pattaya - with an increase in the number of American soldiers, the demand for prostitutes services. And since for men in these parts is stable There were few paid jobs, they traded themselves.
Fathers are usually very disappointed if their son becomes katoi, and katoi face a huge amount of stereotypes and limitations as social and economic. Katoi still can not legally change gender from male to female, even if they have undergone surgery.
North American Indians: Berdashi
Such people were also called people with two souls - they were people of the third sex in the culture of various tribes of North American Indians. I.e born women accepted the gender identity of men - and vice versa.
Researcher, MD, Mondimor Francis Mark, notes that individual tribes of American Indians Berdash fully mastered clothing style, manners and role in the opposite sex. Such societies male Berdashi performed "female" household duties: they cooked food, darned and cleaned their weapons. The reverse paradigm also worked: female berdashi hunted along with men. In other tribes dressed and behaved Berdashi in accordance with their biological gender, and their role as the other sex was limited to purely social aspects.
In the tribes where the Berdashi were, it was not considered that a man consisting in intimate relationship with berdash, has sex with another a man Berdashi did not have sex with other Berdash there was a taboo on such connections, which were considered as a form incest.
As you can see, the third gender usually implies disagreement with its biological sex - people consider themselves or representatives of another gender, or even deny their existence in the framework of the binary gender system.