Pacific Ocean: the organic world and its features
Life in the world’s ocean is extremely rich, but marine flora is much poorer than on land. However, it is of no small importance in the infinite circulation of substances. In total, there are approximately 10,000 plant species: various grasses, algae, shrubs, mangroves, bacteria, and lower fungi in slightly smaller quantities. All of them are involved in the infinite circulation of substances in the ocean. Digesting waste products contained in sediments of the bottom and in the water, they are at the same time suitable for use in food by many living organisms.
The fauna of the ocean has about 160 thousand species of living creatures.
A little later in this article will be presented in more detail the organic world of the Pacific Ocean.
The huge world ocean is divided by continents into several separate oceans. Each of them has unique features formed by nature.
The ocean, as an environment with a developing and spreading life in it, is very different from land. This is due to the fact that the aquatic environment in it has a relatively constant salt composition, almost not changing in time and in space.
This property contributed to the preservation in the oceans of some representatives of ancient geological eras. This is especially true of great depths with low water temperatures. For example, hedgehogs, starfish and sea stalked lilies, which lived even in the most ancient Paleozoic.
Before we imagine the organic world of the Pacific Ocean, let us briefly describe this greatest, the largest natural reservoir in the world.
The largest ocean in the world by area is the deepest and oldest of all the oceans existing today. Its main features are frequent movements of the earth’s crust, vast depths, a large number of volcanoes at the bottom, and enormous reserves of heat in its waters. In this regard, the ocean has an exceptional diversity of the organic world.
No wonder it is called the Great, because its area is one third of the territory of the Earth and almost half the surface area of the entire World Ocean.It divides the Great Pond of the 5 continents. It has a particularly large width at the equator, therefore the warmest Pacific Ocean is also on the surface, whose organic world feels quite comfortable in its waters.
Here and a great many seas, among which there are shelf, located on the shoals of continents with small depths (up to 100 meters). Some seas are located in the zone of interaction of lithospheric plates. They are quite deep and are separated from the ocean by island arcs.
Unique and distinctive Pacific Ocean. Its organic world is rich in endemics and giants. Many species of fish live here that are not preserved in other oceans. These are such endemic mammals as sea otters, fur seals and sea lions.
General description of the organic world of the Pacific
The huge natural reservoir occupies vast territories located on different belts of the Earth, which contributes to the formation of various conditions for the development of life. In the ocean, a certain zonality is expressed in the distribution of fauna and flora. Plankton here is represented by small crustaceans and single-celled algae (more than 1,300 species in total).
In terms of organics, the Pacific Ocean is relatively rich.The organic world of its bottom consists of approximately 29 species of grass and 4 thousand species of algae.
Low temperatures and enormous pressure at great depths reduce the composition of animal species and force them to adapt to such difficult living conditions. For example, at a depth of 8500 meters, there are only 45 species that are slow-moving and work as “filters”. They pass through the stomach a huge amount of sludge, which is the main source of food at such depths.
They live in the ocean fur seals, whales, sea beavers (the latter live only in the Pacific Ocean).
The composition of the organic world by sites
Only in the surface layer of the Pacific Ocean more than 1000 species of microorganisms found in plankton have been found. In terms of species composition, one of the richest organisms is the Sea of Japan, which is located in the temperate zone.
In cold and temperate latitudes, brown algae develops perfectly, in the southern - giant alga (macrocystis), growing to 200 meters in length. In tropical areas, large green and red limestone algae from the coral family are common. The latter, in combination with coral polyps, form reefs.
In the northern parts of the ocean, giant oysters and mussels predominate, and the equatorial zone was chosen by huge bivalve mollusks of tridacna, whose weight can reach up to 300 kg.
Life in the ocean is rich especially in coral reefs in equatorial and tropical latitudes. The northern waters of the ocean are rich in salmon fish, the southeast (off the coast of South America) - in huge clusters of the most diverse fish. Water masses are very fertile here. They develop well animal and plant plankton, which is an excellent food for anchovies, scad, mackerel and other species of fish. And the latter, in turn, feed on penguins, cormorants and pelicans.
For comparison, a little about the Indian Ocean
The organic world of the Pacific and Indian Ocean is similar, since the nature of the latter has many similarities with the Pacific Ocean.
The Indian Ocean is distinguished by its peculiar position. Most of it is located in the Southern Hemisphere, the northern one is bounded by mainland Eurasia, and therefore has no connection with the Arctic harsh ocean.
Its organic world is especially similar to the animal and plant world of the western part of the Pacific Ocean.Its aquatic tropical masses are also rich in plankton (especially in its single-celled algae). Fish species are numerous and varied: mackerel, sardinella, sharks, etc. In the southern part, there are protein-colored fish (ice, etc.). The areas of shelves and shallow waters near coral reefs are particularly rich. Here, algae thickets create extensive submarine meadows. Sea giant turtles and snakes live in the waters of the warm Indian Ocean. Among the mollusks are many squid and cuttlefish. Closer to Antarctica are whales and seals.
Great and rich is the Pacific Ocean. Its organic world as a whole is distinguished by its species richness, antiquity and a high degree of endemism.
In its waters are concentrated more than 1/2 living creatures of the entire World Ocean of the planet. This applies to both the animal world and plants. And this is due to the huge size, age and diversity of natural conditions.