Pallet production: equipment, technology, profitability. Europallet
Pallets (pallets) are indispensable in any warehouse. With their help, the cargo is moved and stored, the goods are unloaded, their accounting is facilitated, and much more. How is the production of pallets, on what equipment, what is the technology of their production and profitability, read the article.
Pallets were first manufactured in the United States of America in the early 20th century. They were stored goods during transportation in wagons, so the size of the pallets corresponded to their dimensions. To date, these dimensions are considered standard, but the scope of the pallet is much expanded.
In our country, pallets have become very popular, the dimensions of which correspond to European standards: 120x80 centimeters. Currently, the production of pallets of different types and sizes, depending on the parameters of the cargo, has been mastered.
Depending on the methods of loading and the location of goods are distinguished:
- Two-way pallets and four-way pallets. It depends on how the forks of the forklift truck are inserted under the bottom of the pallet: from two sides or from four.
- Single-palleted pallets (one-sided placement of cargo) and double-pallets (cargo is placed on both sides).
- Single and multiple use pallets. The first are used when transporting cargo to remote areas or other countries. Returning them from there is problematic or unprofitable.
- Folding pallets and non-separable.
The technology depends on the method of manufacturing the pallet, which is manual, partially automated (using auxiliary equipment) and using an automatic production line.
Any way will be more profitable if you have your own sawmill. Starting capital for the purchase of material and the necessary equipment will soon pay off. After a few months, the production of pallets begins to make a profit. The equipment to which the belt frame, trimming and tortsovochny machine belongs, is usually used when performing other work related to the processing of wood.
Production of wooden pallets in this way does not meet the high quality, so large companies do not willingly purchase them. But the low price and lack of information about the mode of production, which the manufacturers deliberately hide, attracts buyers and pallets are quickly bought up.
The master needs a little work: lumber, nails and hammer. Labor productivity with this method is small, 80-150 units of production for 8 hours of work.
By producing pallets with auxiliary equipment, productivity increases. In one shift, equal to eight hours, you can make 300-600 pallets. This method of production of pallets is the most common. The following equipment is used:
- Pistols nailing (Nayler), which are pneumatic, electric and gas.
- A table assembly for assembly a pallet.
- The machine on which the corners of the pallets are cut.
- Line integrated assembly. It consists of several staninas, each of which performs a certain operation with a pallet.
Lines equipped with machines and units, may have a plant for the production of pallets, which produces a large volume of products or a small shop. The choice of domestic and foreign automated lines is currently very large, but the most attractive are two types:
- The basis of the first includes a nailing machine SNF-02. This line produces one and a half pallets in one minute. Two operators and one loader service the line.
- The second type of automatic line is based on the use of two nailing machines. Productivity is 5-7 pallets per minute. The advantage of this line in switching the machine for the manufacture of pallets with other sizes.
The production technology of wooden pallets is as follows:
- First, lumber in the form of bars or planks is laid in the patterns of the nailing machine.
- Then the legs and the main part of the pallet are knocked together in one pass of the machine according to 2 templates.
- After the nails are clogged, the template with the legs is returned to the operator, and the legs are placed in the main template.
They are designed to store goods on them.Thanks to pallets, the manufacturability of all processes is improved during the transportation of any goods. For construction sites, brick, concrete, cement and other materials are delivered on pallets.
They are made of alder, aspen, spruce, pine, the humidity of which must be at least 24%. Euro pallets, whose dimensions conform to European standards (800x1200 millimeters), consists of planed boards. Do not confuse these pallets with the American counterpart, the size of which is larger - 100x100 centimeters.
All elements are fastened with brushed nails, which provide high strength. Europallet, the size of which is unequal, consists of 20 elements. The total weight of the pallet is small (10 kilograms), but it carries cargo weighing up to 2.5 tons. This is achieved due to the fact that the checkers are placed, and the boards alternate in width according to the width.
If wooden pallets are made for their own needs, in small batches, universal equipment is used for the production of pallets. Cutting logs across is made with a chain hand saw. You can cut a timber and cut it into boards on a saw-frame or horizontal sawing machine.On the trimming machine, the saws of which are located below and above, cut the timber into drafts and face the boards in size.
With the formation of holes on the blanks from the dropped out knots, they are sealed with plugs. There are no special machines for such operations in our country, and the price for imported equipment is very high. Therefore, plugs are made on drilling machines, which are equipped with hollow drills.
For a large enterprise that specializes in the production of wooden pallets, this equipment is not enough. To ensure the required power, special equipment and machines are needed.
Pallet productioncarried outfrom wood of soft deciduous and coniferous breeds of trees, and also birch. For the manufacture of pallets used low-grade lumber. Its humidity should not be more than 25 percent.
Wood flaws are not permissible: alien inclusions, cancer, sharp or blunt wane, mechanical damage and cracks going from the ends to a depth of 5 centimeters or more.
Pallet blanks should be solid, they should not be spliced.At the mounting points of the fasteners and on the edges of the outer floorboards, the presence of knots is not allowed. If they disappear during the processing of the boards, the holes formed are sealed with corks made of wood of the same breed. Pallets must be marked.
Each pallet must be stamped, confirming the passage of phytosanitary processing in accordance with current standards, indicating the name of the lot, the country of manufacture, the method of processing. On euro pallets it is additionally indicated under which number the batch and the year of its production were issued. Pallet processing is carried out in three ways:
- Fumigation - when methyl methyl bromide is used for processing, neutralizing all pests and diseases. This method is not popular with manufacturers, since after sanitization, the properties of wood change: the surface of the pallet is covered with a thin layer of composition. Products cannot be stored on such pallets.
- Heat treatment, which consists in the fact that the pallets for a long time are placed in chambers with a high temperature.Malicious bacteria are neutralized in such conditions. The disadvantage of processing is the high cost of equipment.
- Chamber drying, which is a common and most effective way. It consists in the following: lumber for the production of pallets is placed in a chamber with a certain temperature and humidity and held for some time. The technology is automated, the camera is equipped with sensors. As soon as the values of temperature and humidity reach the required value, the devices automatically turn off.
Who buys pallets?
Sale of pallets in retail does not make sense. It is necessary to look for wholesale buyers among large companies. Potential purchasers of a pallet can be:
- Companies transporting goods to all countries of the world.
- Enterprises producing goods: machines, furniture, household appliances, etc.
- Greenhouses and farms selling products.
- Trade centers and large markets.
- Companies specializing in the provision of warehousing services that store a variety of goods.
The pallet business is a very profitable business. The profitability of the production of palletsdepends on what the cost of raw materials. Therefore, it is preferable to start such a business in regions with a developed woodworking industry. Here, raw materials can be purchased at a bargain price.
Profitability is calculated as follows. Knowing the cost of one cubic meter of board, you can calculate the cost of the finished pallet. When selling its price increases. The performance of the pallet making line is known. It is easy to calculate the number of pallets produced per hour, day, month, year. From the amount of annual income, expenses for taxes, utility bills, wages to all personnel of the enterprise are deducted. The remaining amount will be a net profit.