Pedestrian crossing: history and classification
What is a pedestrian crossing?
Most often this is an area on the roadway, which is dedicated to the movement of pedestrians from one side of the road to the other. In some cases, it is a complex of structures above or below the ground, serving for similar purposes. Both the first and second signs are indicated by appropriate road signs or by applying special markings. The location of this special area is determined by the flow of people and cars, and the intensity of movement. Most often, a pedestrian crossing is located close to transport stops, in front of intersections, and wherever, due to the intensity of the flow of people, it is necessary to settle them on the roadway. All changes in the order of traffic are regulated by the city traffic police, which operates in accordance with the norms and requirements of the law.
The first attempts to settle the road appeared in ancient Rome. Guy Julius Caesar made one-way traffic on some streets, and in some parts of the city, carts stopped at certain hours. With the development of technical progress, the rules for the regulation of road traffic have changed and improved. The first pedestrian crossing was marked by circles on the road, but studies have proven the low efficiency of this marking method. The habitual modern man "zebra" appeared relatively recently - about half a century ago. It was first applied to the road in England in 1951. It should also be noted that with the advent of a significant number of cars on the roads and a non-decreasing number of people, it was decided to redirect the flow of pedestrians under the ground. Thus, in 1959 the first underground pedestrian crossing appeared in Moscow. This allowed us to effectively unload the streets, and the construction experience was taken over by other countries.
Currently, the traffic police has developed a set of rules on the location of places for crossing the roadway.In this regard, it became necessary to allocate some groups. Next will be considered the most simple classification.
1. By location
Distinguish between ground, underground and elevated pedestrian crossing. The first of these is considered the most common and familiar. However, security is less secured than on others. In turn, the aboveground and underground passages are structures and structures for the safer movement of pedestrians. Such activities require a large investment of time and investment.
2. By control method
There are only two groups: adjustable and unregulated pedestrian crossing. The first one is equipped with traffic lights and the corresponding special marking, allows you to alternately rotate the movement of people and cars. The second one, on the contrary, is indicated only by signs and markings (however, it is allowed to use light signals to attract the attention of drivers) and stops the flow of cars only for a short non-periodical period of time.