Plant-parasite dodder: fighting measures
Dodder - plant-parasite is probably familiarevery person; being a dangerous lianate weed wrapping around cultivated plants, it does not allow the latter to develop normally, sucking up their vitality together with nutrients.
Description of dodder
A native of Africa and tropical America,plant-parasite dodder has received its wide distribution around the world; easily adapting to new conditions for themselves and new plants, it parasitizes them mercilessly.
Characterized by high fecundity and great vitality, the dodder is of thin-and thick-stalked form, and is found in nature in more than 100 varieties.
The most harmful is a plant-parasitedodder field, clover, hop, linen. Deprived of leaves and roots, it has a body of different shades (from yellowish to reddish). It feeds on a curly parasite due to the forces of the host plant, to which it is attached by means of peculiar suckers (haustoriae). The formation of such suckers, which penetrate deeply into the plant tissue and suck nutrients out of it, occurs in places of contact with the "future victim". The plant, which became a hostage to dodder, is weakened, delayed in growth and development due to the nutrient exhaustion of the weed.
Danger of dodder for cultivated plants
The growth of the dodder occurs at a rapid pace, the weed covers whole massifs of cultivated plants, causing a decrease in the quality of the produce, deterioration of winter hardiness, and even loss of the future crop.
Dodder is not capricious about the choice of "futurevictim "and can live next to any garden and garden crops; Do not disdain this weed even with flowers. Beveled on hay grass, affected by dodder, dry dry, lose nutrition, can cause disease of the animal, in some cases - its death.
After the plant-parasite dodderit will adhere to a suitable plant, its connection to the soil is broken, and the weed is on full support of the chosen natural object. One weedy specimen is capable of forming a lesion of up to 6 square meters in diameter. meters. The vegetative body of dodder is characterized by high internal pressure, which allows the fragments of the plant not to wither for a long time. The dodder basically develops in the upper and middle parts of plants, enveloping them with filiform, branching, pale yellow stems.
The dodder stem is covered with a large number of smallflowers collected in spherical, club-shaped or spicate inflorescences. The fruit is a capsule with 2 or 4 seeds. And the latter are so similar to the seeds of cultivated plants that they are often mistaken for such. In particular, the seeds of dodder are similar to the seeds of clover, only with a careful examination they can be distinguished. Masking of dodder seeds under the seed of cultivated plants is the result of parasitic adaptation, which complicates the use of conventional methods of separating seeds from each other. The dodder seeds, characterized by a cellular surface, are mixed with a magnetic powder and separated from the seeds of cultivated plants with the help of electromagnets. On their smooth surface, the powder is not retained.
Distribution of dodder
Distribution of dodder often occurs withseeds of poorly purified crops. Also its carriers are animals, wind, cars, water; If livestock was fed with dwarf plants, then the latter falls on fields with the manure of these animals. Also, the dodder can spread with container or planting material. The source of infection can be weeds and wild plant species that are infected with this parasite. Germination of dodder seeds occurs on the 5th-15th day after sowing, and at first time exists due to own forces. If the dodder does not meet a suitable "breadwinner", she dies.
Dodder - plant-parasite: fighting measures
It is very difficult to get rid of dodder, asthe effect of chemical preparations does not do it practically no harm. Destroy this weed only with the plant itself. Effective are preventive measures aimed at preventing the appearance of such a malicious natural parasite on the site.
Planting of cultivated plants is required to producecleaned from dodder seeds and clean areas. It is necessary to carry out approbation of crops in order to determine the degree of their purity, phytopathological examination and quarantine measures. For planting plants, you need to select clean areas. In the areas of irrigated agriculture, the germination of weed seeds is stimulated by provocative spring and autumn watering. When there are dodder in crops of perennial grasses, the last before the beginning of flowering and seeding of dodder is required to be mowed. Especially effective is a timely mowing against the dodder of the field, 95% of the stems are located at a short distance from the soil surface, which allows for a low cut, it is easy to remove them from the field with hay. Effective deep digging of soil, at 25-30 cm.
It is very important not to allow the appearance ofDangerous weeds, among which is a plant-parasite dodder. And the fight against them with the use of preventive preventive measures will be minimized.