Runny nose in infants: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention
The body of young children is most susceptible to diseases. Very often, parents have to deal with such a problem as a cold. The nasal mucosa in children is very sensitive, so some pathologies of the respiratory tract are almost inevitable. On the other hand, the presence of discharge in the nose does not always indicate exactly the cold in the infant. 3 months is the time when babies begin full-fledged mucous work. Until this time, the presence of nasal discharge may indicate a physiological rhinitis. This is a completely natural process that does not require treatment. In this article, we will tell you what types of rhinitis are and when to fight it.
A runny nose in an adult is considered normal and in most cases it goes away on its own, that is, without the use of medications.However, if such a problem occurs in a newborn baby, the parents begin to sound the alarm. The child's nasal passages are very small and narrow. When mucosal edema occurs, they overlap, leading to difficulty breathing. The inability to fully breathe through the nose gives the kids a lot of trouble. They can not suckle because of lack of air. As a result, the child becomes capricious, constantly hungry. That is why all parents, without exception, should know how to treat a runny nose in infants.
Toddlers do not know how to switch to mouth breathing in case of lack of oxygen. In medical practice, there are cases when a prolonged runny nose and blockage of the nasal passages became the cause of death due to strangulation of the child. With excessive accumulation of secretions, they can enter the bronchi, which leads to the development of bronchitis. If mucus penetrates the so-called Eustachian tube into the ear, otitis appears. Experts recommend to treat children's cold with all seriousness and not to neglect this problem.
A runny nose in infants does not always indicate the onset of respiratory disease.At this age, the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx can not yet perform its primary functions, and its work is not fully regulated. The discharge of mucus, even in large quantities, may indicate a so-called physiological rhinitis.
Of course, the main cause of this problem is a common cold or a viral infection. In the latter case, a runny nose is accompanied by swelling of the mucous membrane, which significantly complicates breathing.
The air in large cities, and the whole life of modern man are filled with various irritants of chemical nature. All of them can cause an allergic reaction in the fragile body. It is manifested by the following symptoms: cough, runny nose, fever.
In infants, excessive accumulation of mucus directly in the nasal passages can be observed when teething. However, this problem does not arise because of the teeth themselves, but because of reduced immunity, against which the body cannot fight viruses and infections of various nature.
If a runny nose appeared on the background of acute respiratory viral infections, based on the level of pathogenicity of the virus, the disease itself begins either with a rise in temperature or with indisposition.The child begins to sneeze strongly, and this is a clear sign of vasospasm and dryness in the nasal cavity.
In just a couple of hours, the clinical picture changes completely. Vessels expand, and the mucous swells. Due to the fact that the nasal passages in infants are rather narrow, it becomes very difficult for him to breathe. When feeding, the child has to periodically breathe in his mouth, which leads to the ingestion of large volumes of air. As a result, getting into the intestines, it leads to spasms of smooth muscles and intestinal colic. The kid becomes very moody.
Another problem that often accompanies a runny nose in infants is the insufficient supply of oxygen to the brain cells. Neurons in such conditions can not function properly, which manifests itself in the form of headaches. Children become easily excitable and refuse to breast.
After about three days, the discharge becomes thicker, and swelling of the mucous is reduced. Gradually, all the above phenomena disappear, and breathing returns to normal.
Signs of a non-infectious rhinitis are:
Types of rhinitis
Depending on what caused the pathology, the following types of it are distinguished:
- Allergic rhinitis in infants.Occurs due to the influence of irritants on the nasal mucosa. In the role of allergens can be anything, since along with oxygen into the nasal passages come from the outside other particles. It is they that cause a protective reaction in the body in the form of an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane. To distinguish allergic rhinitis from other forms is very simple. The baby has a clear mucus from the nasal passages, eye redness, swelling of the face and the appearance of a dry cough.
- Physiological rhinitis in infants. 2 months is precisely the time when the pathology of this type most often develops. It is not accompanied by signs of a common cold. Physiological rhinitis develops as a result of the restructuring of the nasal mucosa, as a result of which it begins to produce secretions in large quantities. In this case, experts do not recommend the use of any drugs to reduce rhinitis. It is enough to wash the nasal passages with a weak saline solution.
- Infectious rhinitis in infants. Occurs as a result of penetration into the child's body of viruses of different nature.Initially, they affect the nasal mucosa, which leads to its direct inflammation.
- Vasomotor rhinitis. This type of pathology is extremely rare and is characterized by vascular expansion. It manifests itself in the form of unilateral nasal congestion.
When should I seek medical help?
Before taking any action to eliminate this problem, it is necessary to assess the situation. Only a pediatrician knows how to cure a cold in a baby. If the baby has difficulty breathing, nasal discharge is yellow or green, the child refuses to take the breast, you must immediately call a doctor.
During the diagnosis, a specialist initially collects anamnesis, conducts a survey of parents (when there were discharge, how long they are, the presence of comorbidities). Then the doctor with the help of special tools examines ENT organs. Additionally, you may need a blood test, x-ray examination of the nasal sinuses, immunological testing.
If the condition of the infant is not accompanied by the symptoms described above, parents can help him on their own.How to do this, we will describe later in this article.
First aid to the baby up to a year
If an adult can blow his nose independently, thereby freeing the nasal passages from mucus, then the baby cannot do this. In this case, parents come to the rescue, who can use special nasal aspirators. They come in different shapes and sizes, are sold in every pharmacy. However, the principle of operation of such devices is one - nasal aspirators pump out mucus from the nasal passage. Their use is permitted from the very first weeks of the baby’s life.
How to treat a runny nose in infants?
The first thing to do is periodically clear the nasal passages from mucus using the above-described aspirator. They are very convenient to use, you just need to get used to. If the discharge is not very much, it is recommended to make a cotton flagellum and gently scroll them in the nose of a child. After the procedure, all the mucus will be on this flagellum, and the nose will be cleaned.
If the cold and temperature in infants at the same time, walking is not recommended. You should also wait with a swim. When the temperature returns to normal, you can walk in calm weather.It is allowed to bathe in four days after improving the condition of the baby.
With regard to the issue of nutrition, with a cold the appetite is usually reduced, it is very difficult for the child to suckle because of a stuffy nose. If the baby refuses to eat, it is necessary to make every effort to clear the crumbs of the nose. Even during illness, an infant should eat a third of a portion of a portion of milk, and the interval between feedings should be shortened. If the baby refuses to breast, it is necessary to feed from a spoon or even a syringe. The child must be constantly fed. Otherwise, the likelihood of dehydration of the body, life-threatening, increases.
How to cure a cold in infants? First of all, it should be noted that only a doctor should prescribe therapy. Self-treatment is very dangerous, so you can harm the baby.
When the first symptoms of a runny nose appear in the form of dryness in the nose, it is usually prescribed Aqua Maris or Otrivin Bebi drops. They include purified sea water, which perfectly moisturizes the mucous, eliminating its dryness.
After the vessels have expanded, you can go on vasoconstrictor drops ("Nazivin", "Vibrocil").They are best used no more than three times a day. Overdose of these drugs is very dangerous. Sometimes there are complications from the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It is possible to use such drugs for no more than five days, after there occurs a persistent addiction, expansion of blood vessels.
To combat infections prescribed drops with antiviral and antibacterial properties ("Protargol").
After the runny nose passes into the third stage, and the discharge from the nasal cavity becomes thicker, you can again apply Aqua Maris. Drops contribute to the dissolution of mucus and the normalization of respiration.
If the parents finally succeeded in overcoming a runny nose in infants, what to do with the crusts formed? In this case, it is recommended to carefully clean the aisles with a cotton swab dipped in any baby oil. This is necessary so that the crusts are softened and easier to remove. This procedure should be carried out already healthy kiddies.
How else can you cure a cold in infants? Komarovsky (famous pediatrician) recommends using home-cooked remedies.However, you should first consult with your doctor.
- Saline solution. A quarter of a teaspoon of salt must be dissolved in a glass of boiled water. This is a cheap version of today's popular moisturizing products. The solution should be instilled 4 drops into each nasal passage after about three hours. Note that before the new procedure it is necessary to prepare it again.
- If your home grows aloe, you can make droplets on the juice of this plant. Cut leaves should be put in a cool place for a few days to enhance the beneficial effect. Aloe juice should be mixed with boiled water in a ratio of 1: 1 and drip one drop three times a day.
Many parents prefer inhalations to treat the runny nose in infants. 1 month is a rather small age to carry out this kind of procedure. Significantly increases the risk of bronchial obstruction and laryngospasm. Heat inhalation is recommended to use in case of addition of cough, but only after consulting a doctor.
Is it necessary to treat a cold in a child? Experts strongly recommend treating this pathology primarily to alleviate the condition of the crumbs.The child can not tell about their unpleasant feelings, but all adults know how hard it is to breathe when the nose is stuffed up. In addition, there is an unpleasant dry mouth, and the delicate skin on the nose is constantly inflamed.
Among the common complications that accompany a runny nose in a child are the following:
- Weight loss due to a sharp decrease in appetite and the inability to keep the chest.
- Otitis, pharyngitis.
- Pneumonia. The cause of the development of this disease is sputum, which is saturated with bacteria.
- The appearance of ulcers on the wings of the nose and upper lip. They appear because parents are constantly wiping their nose from mucus and trying to blow the baby. It is extremely undesirable to do this, since any operations with the nose can be very painful for the child.
How can you prevent a runny nose in infants? Komarovsky advises first of all to carry out daily wet cleaning in the apartment, periodically air the baby’s room. It is also important to limit contact with possible allergens. If someone from the family is sick with ARVI or flu, you should use masks.