On September 20, 1959 Lee Harvey Oswald went to the Soviet Union, dismissed nine days earlier from the ranks of the marines for pro-Soviet and radical views. In the USSR, an American lived very briefly, unlike many of his compatriots, who had exchanged life in the United States for the opportunity to become a Soviet citizen.
A black actor, scientists, spies, engineers and ballerinas — they all found in the Soviet Union what they lacked in their own country.
Lee Harvey Oswald
In October 1959, shortly before his twentieth birthday, the former marine arrived in the Soviet Union. The American went to the United Kingdom on the pretext of studying in Switzerland, but on the same day he went by plane to Helsinki, where he received a Soviet visa.
Immediately after his arrival, Oswald announced his desire to obtain Soviet citizenship, but on October 21 his application was rejected. Then Oswald, right in the hotel, opened his veins on his left arm, after which he was sent to a mental hospital.
A week later, he came to the US embassy in Moscow to renounce his US citizenship.On the flight of the Marine in the Soviet Union was reported on the front page of the Associated Press and in other publications in 1959.
Oswald wanted to study at Moscow State University, but was sent to work as a turner at the Minsk Radio Works named after Lenin. In Minsk, he received an allowance and a furnished one-room apartment in a prestigious house, while being constantly under surveillance.
Soon Oswald got bored: “I am starting to reconsider my desire to stay. The work is gray, there is nowhere to spend money, there are no night clubs and bowling, there are no places for recreation, except for union dances. I've had enough. ” He wrote to the US embassy in Moscow a request for the return of his American passport and a proposal to return to the United States.
In the USSR, Oswald managed to get acquainted with the 19-year-old student Marina Prusakova, whom he married. The couple had a daughter, June, and on May 24, 1962, the family left the Soviet Union.
Already later, in his homeland, Oswald was arrested for killing a police officer approximately 40 minutes after Kennedy was shot dead. After which he became the main suspect in the Kennedy assassination.
It was believed that in 5.6 seconds a man made three shots at the President’s car from the sixth floor of a book warehouse in the city of Dallas, and then killed a local policeman. According to the findings of the commission, he “acted alone and without any advice or help.”
Oswald denied involvement in both murders, and two days later, during his transfer to the county jail, was shot by the owner of a nightclub. This murder hit the television report and was shown live.
The actor first arrived in the USSR in 1932 as a member of the African-American troupe James Hughes, who dreamed of creating his own theater in the USSR.
Soon Patterson, who speaks English, was invited to work as a broadcaster speaker for North America. Subsequently, together with his wife, a Ukrainian artist, he worked at a Moscow film studio.
In October 1941, Lloyd was contused by the explosion of a German aerial bomb, after which he worked as a speaker in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, where after a few months during one of the broadcasts he lost consciousness. Patterson died March 9, 1942. He was 32 years old.
His son Jim in two years played a role in the film "Circus", later served as a submarine captain, worked as a writer and left for his father's homeland in 1994.
A biologist from the United States and his wife in 1986 asked for political asylum in the USSR due to the persecution by the secret services for their communist convictions.
The couple traveled around the country with press conferences where Lokshin branded American intelligence services. Until the end of the 90s, the doctor of biological sciences worked in the laboratory of the Institute of Experimental Diagnostics and Therapy of Tumors at the N.N. Blokhin.
Lokshina did not receive Soviet citizenship, and in 1992, by decree of Boris Yeltsin, they were granted Russian citizenship. In 2001, Arnold Lokshin retired, trying to secure retirement benefits from the United States.
Now the scientist lives alone in the Moscow district of New Cheryomushki, maintains his blog. His wife Loren Lokshin and their three children also live in Russia, but separately. According to Arnold, he does not maintain relations with them, since “they have moved to the other side of the barricades”.
Edward Lee Howard
Together with his wife, he worked for the CIA for several years, however, he was fired for drug use.
A KGB officer fled to the US embassy in Rome and during interrogations provided information about two American intelligence officers who were KGB agents, Edward Lee Howard and Ronald Pelton.
Howard flew to Helsinki and fled to the Soviet embassy.Until the end of his life he claimed that he was innocent and became a victim of slander, because of which he had to flee.
In 1995, the memoirs of Howard Safe House were published, in which he talked about how he was ready for a plea bargain.
Howard died on July 12, 2002 at his Russian dacha under mysterious circumstances: he fell in his own house and broke his neck.
Roy Franklin Barton
The American ethnologist, a researcher of the Philippines and the Austronesian people of Ifugao, decided to emigrate to the USSR in 1930, shortly after the onset of the Great Depression. The scientist has long been interested in socialism, and also ran to avoid paying alimony.
In the USSR, he wanted to immediately study anthropology, but initially he had to work for six months at the hospital of the Dental Institute in Leningrad.
In 1935, he defended his PhD thesis on pagan beliefs in New Guinea, participated in the work of the Anti-Religious Exhibition, married a Soviet woman, but at the same time retained American citizenship.
From 1938 to 1940, Barton worked in the Department of India and Indonesia of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnology of the Academy of Sciences, but in May 1940, he suddenly came to the American Embassy in Moscow, asking for his American passport to be restored andthat fears arrest by the NKVD.
Subsequently, the fact of secret connections between Barton and the NKVD was revealed, but it is not known for certain exactly what kind of work he performed and why he feared arrest. In 1940, he was allowed to travel to the United States.
The radio technician, along with his friend, worked at Western Electric, which was carrying out military orders. Being in contact with the Soviet intelligence officer Feklisov, they transmitted to the Soviet intelligence technical information about the military systems of the US Army.
In 1950, Barr learned about the trial of the spouses Rosenberg, with whom he was familiar, and fled to Czechoslovakia. There he received a new name, Joseph Berg. In 1956, Berg and a colleague came to the USSR, where they played an important role in the development of Soviet microelectronics.
They created the first in the USSR desktop computer UM-1 and its modification UM-1NH, for which they were awarded the State Prize. In 1962, Khrushchev himself visited the design bureau, and it made a great impression on him.
Berg continued to work on Soviet science and died in Moscow on August 1, 1998.
She was born on May 9 in Los Angeles, and in the 1930s her communist father moved with his family to the USSR.
Then the girl graduated from the Moscow Choreographic School at the Bolshoi Theater in the class of teacher Maria Kozhukhova,after which she was accepted into the ballet troupe of the Stanislavsky Musical Theater.
Violet was a prima ballerina of the troupe until the early 1980s and danced until she was 55 years old.
In the person of Violetta, America lost an outstanding ballerina who combined in her works a virtuoso ballet technique with a psychological development of roles. Until her death, Violetta worked as a teacher-tutor of the theater.
Since 1946, the girl has held the position of clerk of the American Embassy in the USSR, working in the Bureau of Information Collection, including for the illustrated Russian-language magazine "America".
Two years later, Annabelle married opera singer Konstantin Lapshin and wished to stay to live in the USSR. She said: "These are good people ... they are doing everything possible to make this world a better place to live."
In 1949 in Moscow, the Literary Gazette Publishers published her book The Truth about American Diplomats, where she exposed the morally degraded employees of the American Embassy in the USSR.
Bukar stayed with her new family in Moscow, gave birth to a son, worked as a radio announcer.“This atmosphere of peace, tranquility and happiness in the Soviet Union is especially beneficial during these days, when military propaganda and military psychosis prevail in many countries of the world, I can easily understand how all this has a detrimental effect on the nerves and health of ordinary people,” she said . Annabelle died in Moscow in 1998.
A girl from a young age joined the Communist Party of the United States, and in 1931, Soviet intelligence officer Einhorn was involved in illegal intelligence work.
Kitty received her first appointment in Germany - in Berlin. She visited Moscow several times, where she studied under the guidance of William Fisher.
In April 1936, she was sent to Paris to work as a radio operator of an illegal NKVD radio station, and on June 22, 1941, wrote a letter to the head of Soviet foreign intelligence: “I ask you to give me a job immediately. I can go to the front as a radio operator, I can make clothes for the soldiers, after all, with my experience of illegal work, I am not afraid of working behind enemy lines. ”
But she was sent to the United States, and later transferred to Mexico. Harris returned to Moscow in July 1946. She was sent to Riga, where four years later she was arrested and sent for compulsory treatment to a prison psychiatric hospital in Gorky.After her release, Kitty remained in Gorky, where she lived until her death in 1966.
Morris and Leontina Teresa Cohen
The couple worked for Soviet intelligence for almost 30 years, until they were declassified in the UK.
The Coens spent several years in prison in the UK, after which they were exchanged for a British spy. Spouses settled in Moscow, received Soviet citizenship.
Morris Cohen devoted the rest of his life to preparing future specialists of the intelligence agency of the USSR and died in 1995. His wife died three years earlier.