String musical instruments. Types of string instruments
Stringed musical instruments are called, the sound source in which is the vibration of the strings. In the international classification, they are referred to as chordophones. The most famous and popular instruments of this class are: guitar, violin, viola, harp, dombra, balalaika, kobyz, harp, cello and many others.
Music is formed by the oscillation of one or several strongly stretched threads, which are a kind of string. This device is called a string. It is stretched between the jumpers on the tool body. Such threads differ in the material from which they are made. This may be copper, and silver, and nylon.
Today there are the following types of string instruments:
1. Pinch. Examples are guitars, harp, balalaika, harp, dombra, sitar, ud, ukulele and others.Here the main way to get the sound is a pinch. This action is carried out either with a finger or with a special plectrum. It is worth noting that some keyboards are sometimes referred to this classification. A striking example is the harpsichord, where a plastic tongue vibrates along the string.
2. Bowed. The most famous representatives of this group are such stringed musical instruments as violin, kobyz, double bass, viola and cello. For sound, a special bow made of wood and stretched hairs at the ends of the structure is used. Keeping such a device on the strings causes a short-term melodic vibration.3. Shock. These stringed musical instruments require additional accessories to play. That is the little hammer. In rare cases, piano is considered to be a percussion string instrument. However, cymbals are the most famous example. It is noteworthy that all actions of the hammer are performed by the player himself.
4. The rest. All other stringed musical instruments that did not fall into the generally accepted classification belong to an indefinite form. For example, aeolian harp.Sound extraction will require wobble vibrations caused by air flow.
Varieties of string plucked instruments
Al-oud, or simply oud, is a true cultural heritage of the Medieval East. In Arabic, the name of the instrument means “tree”. The body has a rounded shape. The neck is relatively short, without frets. That is why al-uda has such a unique sound. The string combination consists of 5 pairs. All of them must be tuned in unison. There are alternative versions of the 13-string instrument. The string is made of nylon, in antiquity - from the intestine of the animal.
Harp is a musical instrument that is known to the world from medieval poems and legends. This is one of the most popular and beautiful representatives of the string plucked group. Currently, there are many varieties of harps, differing in shape, number of strings and sound. The most widely used tool in the UK. It is a curved frame with a set of parallel strung strings. It is striking melodiousness and soft overflow of tones.Another interesting plucking tool is dombra, or dambour. It is considered a national treasure of Kazakhstan.It is a kind of guitar with two strongly stretched nylon strings. Configured either in the fifth or quart. Frets should be vein. Located at the very top of the neck.
The mandolin is considered the most popular western stringed instrument. The sound is achieved by tweezing four double strings. Such tools differ in form: elongated, lute-like, flat-bottomed. An unusual representative is the Florentine mandolin, since it has five strings.
This is the most common tool in the world. It is used for solo performances as well as for accompaniment. Suitable for absolutely any direction and style of music, from blues to rock. For example, the Spanish guitar is a string instrument that combines the national sound of Western European and Arab peoples. It consists of only five strings. Widespread since the XV century.
Also, do not be amiss to remember about the Russian national guitar. Its principal difference is the number of strings - seven. It appeared only at the beginning of the XIX century. At the time, this instrument had no equal in popularity.Such virtuosos as Mikhail Vysotsky, Semen Aksenov, Andrey Sikhra and many other great musicians played on it.Nevertheless, the classical guitar is considered to be the most common today. It can be of different sizes, it can be different heading mounts, but one thing remains the same - the number of strings. There should be six of them in a classical guitar. In addition, it has a hammer mechanism. Classical guitar is acoustic and electronic.
The uniqueness of balalaika
These are musical Russian folk instruments (strings by category, plucked by typology). Balalaika has a triangular body and three strings. For sound extraction it is necessary to strike a finger on the strained threads simultaneously. Such an action in ancient times was called saber-rattling.
Balalaika is a musical instrument that is a symbol of Russian culture along with harmony. The body can be from 60 to 170 cm. The instruments can be slightly curved or oval in shape. The body consists of six separate segments. The top of the neck is slightly bent back. The frets can be from 16 to 31. The strings on modern balalaikas are carbonic.This achieves such a sonorous sound.
This stringed string instrument is considered popular in Ukraine. The body is always oval, there is a short neck. Bandura is a musical instrument with a huge number of strings. In modern models, they can be up to 64, in the old variations - from 12 to 25. The bowstring stretches from the edge of the neck to the deck. The higher the pinch on the neck, the lower the sound will be.In addition, the bandura is a musical instrument that has a distinctive timbre. It is achieved by a mixed system of registers. To play on the bandura, you should pinch the strings. On fingers should be put on special thimbles.
Some historians consider the Russian harp to be the ancestor of the instrument, others consider the kobzu. In some chronicles of the XIV century there are preserved references and drawings that characterize a certain musical subject extremely widespread in the Kiev province.
Varieties of the bow group
These are mainly ancient folk stringed musical instruments. The names of the most common ones are: violin, viola, double bass and cello. All these instruments today are the foundation of any symphony orchestra. Another type of group is oktobas.In the parties, he appears rarely enough because of the low sound. For the sound, you need to bow one or more strings. The range of such instruments covers about seven octaves.The popularity of the string came in the XVII century. Even then, street musicians learned to combine multi-timbre instruments into a uniform sound. Most often such improvised orchestras consisted of violinists and cellists. Interestingly, to extract sound from the double bass, you can use both a bow and a finger.
Drum Group Features
Getting the melody when playing on such instruments is achieved by lightly hitting a special hammer on the strings. Cymbals are the most prominent example of a group. In addition, sometimes the piano is used as a percussion instrument, where there is a special autonomous mechanism for this.
Another well-known representative of the group is the clavichord. The principle of the game on it is reduced to the pressure on the strings of copper tangent. The result is a specific sound. The tonality depends on the strength and frequency of the impact. A similar procedure can be done with a guitar or violin.Sometimes to enhance the organic sound of the musicians lightly strike a finger or a bow over the strings.
A separate subspecies of the group are laryngeal-resonating instruments. Examples include digirida and harp.
"Free" string instruments
The aeolian harp does not belong to any of the above groups, since the main method of its sound production is the vibration of the string caused by the movement of air. Due to this, the most emotional and delicate melody is achieved. In ancient times, such a harp was considered the subject of the gods.
There is a separate type of string instruments to which the keys are attached. In this case, the musician interacts not directly with the design of the sound. An example of a tool is the harpsichord. In it, the strings cling to small tongues.
Some tools are a combined type. In the Middle Ages, they were honored by roving musicians. They could simultaneously play on a plucked stringed instrument with a bow in the form of a wheel.
For this procedure, the string must be stretched to a certain limit. Any touch to it produces sound.The strings are tuned so that as a result the musician can pick up the desired notes. You can influence the string by pinching, striking, bowing, airflow.
The stronger the tension of the string and the smaller its thickness, the thinner the sound will be. The tonality is also influenced by the length of the bowstring, the number of frets, the size of the body and drum, the length of the neck. Melody depends on the material of the string. Copper sounds louder, silver - thinner, nylon - deaf and rough, etc.
The extraction of notes is also affected by the pinching with your fingers or the object of certain modes. When playing the guitar, this action is called a chord.
Impact on strings
The most difficult and painstaking procedure of sound is considered to be a violin. To play this instrument, the bow must move along the strings in the center between the lower threshold and the fingerboard. Position - perpendicular to the brink of a violin. To change the tone, move the bow closer to the lower threshold of the body.
Playing on plucked instruments requires knowledge of a specific sequence of notes. Touching the string occurs in the middle of the drum. And it makes no difference whether it is a guitar or Russian stringed musical instruments, such as a balalaika or a gusli.To play the keyboard, initially you should choose the object of manipulation: a tongue, a hammer or a tangent. There is no direct impact of the musician on the strings.
String during vibration will always make a quiet sound. Therefore, to enhance the tonality, special designs were invented. In plucked instruments, they are called drums. During the oscillation, the sound enters the closed space, creating an echo, and comes out of it amplified several times. The larger the drum, the higher the volume of the melody.
Acoustic stringed musical instruments are always made only from high-quality wood: spruce or maple. These materials are durable, flexible and light. Some instruments can be made on the basis of carbon fibers (cello).
To increase the volume at the beginning of the 20th century, so-called diaphragm resonators or sockets were used in violins. Similar constructions were previously used in mechanical phonographs.
By 1920, the resonators gradually began to disappear, as electronic sound amplifiers came to replace them.Their operating principle was based on a magnetic pickup, which received vibrations, transformed them into a powerful signal and gave notes through the speakers.
Over time, solid-body instruments appeared in which unnecessary noise, scratches and echoes were eliminated. Modern amplifier musical equipment allows not only to increase the volume of sound, but also to give it additional effects.