Taffeta - fabric: description of the material, composition, properties, advantages and disadvantages
Taffeta fabric is a hard and dense cloth with a glossy surface, consisting of natural and synthetic materials such as cotton, silk, viscose, polyester. Matter keeps its shape well, it is pleasant to the touch and very beautiful. Most often taffeta is used for sewing evening dresses, as well as for the manufacture of furniture upholstery, curtains, various interior decorative items.
The name comes from the Persian word for woven fabric. Initially, the warp and weft were intertwined by hand very tightly to each other, because the cloth was “crisp”. Used this fabric and for stitching banners. Modern material can be of almost any shade, including metallized or “chameleon” - with color overflow.
The origin of taffeta
Taffeta fabric was very popular in Europe, but only wealthy people could afford to create dresses and petticoats out of it.The material came to Russia in the XIV century from Asian countries and was used for finishing fur coats and hats, sewing shirts, sarafans, kaftans and other items of clothing. Sometimes lining was made of it. Initially, the composition of taffeta fabric was completely natural, but synthetic elements appeared in modern cloth, which simplified production and reduced its cost. The fibers obtained by chemical means also increased the strength of the products.
Before the invention of a special loom in India, the material was made entirely by hand, therefore it was distinguished by its high cost. Only a select few could buy taffeta fabric for their outfits, so it became known as "royal matter." Taffeta was also used to create balloons, and the wings of the first Russian aircraft were covered with waxed cloth. The material is considered difficult to sew, because usually the manufacture of products from it is trusted by professionals.
How taffeta is made
The best countries that manufacture taffeta are England, France and Italy. The canvas should be thin and very dense, because the fibers, when creating taffeta fabric for a dress, curtains and other products, are strongly twisted, interlacing with each other in a linen method.In this case, the base and the weft are connected in series, the thread through the thread.
Judging by the descriptions of taffeta fabric, the following materials are most often used for its manufacture:
- natural silk;
- cotton fiber;
Natural fibers in the composition of the material
Natural silk threads are fibers obtained from the silkworm cocoons. Until now, almost all stages of silk production, except for unwinding cocoons, are made manually. Silkworms are grown from eggs to caterpillars, fed by the leaves of the mulberry tree (also called mulberry), and then, after the formation of the cocoon, are killed by hot air. After that, the cocoons are soaked and unwound on a special machine. The result is a triangular shiny thread, thin and durable. The material obtained from it, perfectly passes the air, allowing the skin to breathe. But during the washing taffeta with the addition of silk threads can not be twisted. The washing mode in this case should be delicate, it is advisable to add special care products.
Cotton fibers are another possible component of taffeta.They are obtained from the seed pods of the cotton plant. Processing of raw materials occurs in several stages: the soft filling of the boxes is collected, sorted and cleaned. The cloth received from cotton possesses hygroscopic properties and does not cause allergic reactions.
Synthetic components in the composition of the material
The appearance of synthetic matter and natural cloth is almost the same, but in the first case the material is usually denser and less worn, and its cost is much lower than the natural option. The presence of artificial materials, such as rayon, polyester or acetate, can affect the price of taffeta fabric. Viscose is produced from natural wood, but chemically, grinding pulp chips from precious woods. It is treated with caustic soda and given a certain shape, after which the reagents are washed out. Synthetic taffeta is very wrinkled, and it is quite difficult for her to return the original look, because it is important to carefully store the material, turning it into a roll without folds. Ironing is done at minimum temperature, using wet gauze or other thin fabric.
Polyester and acetate in the composition of the taffeta
Synthetic material consisting of polyesters - polyester, is used to create different types of cloth and can feel like silk, wool or cotton fibers. Taffeta is often made on curtain fabrics with the addition of this material. Some modern types of this matter are 100% polyester. Curtains made from it are well draped, water-repellent, and retain an attractive appearance for a long time. The disadvantages of this type of fabric are possible shrinkage after washing and shedding of the edges of the material, which is important to consider when buying. Dry polyester taffeta is best horizontally.
The composition of taffeta may be acetate - a synthetic material made from cellulose acetate. Outwardly, it is very similar to natural silk and has a shiny surface. It practically does not wrinkle, keeps its shape well and is distinguished by low cost and unpretentiousness. It is advisable to wash the fabric with high acetate content manually, and to dry it without using household appliances, just hanging it vertically.
The color range and characteristics of taffeta
The material can be of different colors: monophonic, iridescent (shanzhan), smooth without patterns, tapestry, printed with a color pattern, compressed - with creases and folds. Taft is pretty easy to paint in any color and give it a different shape, because of the different types and uses of this material a lot.
Depending on the composition, the characteristics of the fabric may vary. But most often taffeta has the following properties:
- wear resistance;
- the ability to repel water;
- attractive appearance.
The front side of the material is always smooth, dense, draped in large folds and is stiff. Apply taffeta for sewing various types of clothing and accessories, curtains and curtains, bedspreads and pillows, some types of sports suits. The fabric is combined with dense fabrics, as well as with guipure and lace.