Tales stolen in the USSR.
Due to numerous requests from readers, I continue a series of popular posts about Soviet plagiarism. Last time we already learned howthe USSRborrowed the ideas of some technical products, and also how they “watched” films and musical themes, and today we will talk about books)
I think you all heard the story that the plot of the Golden Key was not thought up by Alexey Tolstoy, but this story is far from the only one - if you pull this thread, it turns out that the plots of so many Soviet children's books are either completely stolen or " peeped "in the west. This happened all for the same reasons - in the USSR there was no normal legislation on copyright, and the citizens of this country were cut off by “iron curtain” from world culture.
There is another interesting point in this topic - often the authors who wrote the “stolen pearls” of children's books didn’t really create anything more, writing letters about pioneers of mushroom pickers and essays on meteorological stations in Siberia - apparently, this was their true writing level. .
So, in today's post - a big and interesting story about plagiarism in children's books.
one.The Golden Key, 1935 and The Adventures of Pinocchio, 1883
So, let's begin. For a start, I’ll talk about two textbook examples of plagiarism and borrowing, which you probably already know all about. Number one on my list is the Golden Key by Alexei Tolstoy, the characters and part of the storyline are written off from the Pinocchio of the Italian fairy tale by Karl Kollodi, which came out 50 years earlier.
In Carl Collodi’s fairy tale, an old carpenter named Antonio (who became Tolstoy’s Carlo organ-grinder) finds a piece of wood and is going to make a table leg out of it, but the log begins to complain of pain and tickling. Antonio is visited by his friend Jepotto (turned by Tolstoy into Giuseppe), who tells Antonio to make a wooden doll out of a log. Nothing like)?
The wise cricket, the girl with the azure hair, the Medoro poodle, the robbers Kot and Lisa, the evil puppeteer Manjafoko - all this was already with Kollodi. Tolstoy completely wrote off even the whole scenes - for example, the attack of Fox and Kota in masks-bags, medical consultation from animal doctors over the wounded Pinocchio, the scene in the Red Cancer tavern (which became in Tolstoy's "Three Sandworm Tavern") and many others.
"The Adventures of Pinocchio" were published in Russian in 1895, 1906, 1908, 1914. Particularly interesting is the edition of 1924, which was translated by Nina Petrovskaya from ItalianEdited by Alexei Tolstoy(i.e., he edited it 10 years before he wrote Buratino). According to A. Belinsky - later on Tolstoy, close to government circles, secured a ban on re-issuing Pinocchio and vice versa - he lobbied the exit of his Buratino in huge editions.
They also say that the use of the state nomenclature in the interests of their business in this family is inherited)
2. "The Wizard of the Emerald City", 1939 and "The Wizard of Oz", 1900.
The second example of plagiarism, about which you also probably heard - the writer Volkov almost completely copied his famous "Emerald City" from the book "The Amazing Wizard from Oz", written by American writer Leiman Frank Baum in 1900. Alexander Volkov was a mathematician, knew English well - and actually did, as they say now, the “literary translation” of Bauma’s book, published in the journal Pioneer in 1939.
A separate book, The Wizard of the Emerald City, was published in 1941 — and neither Lyman Frank Baum was mentioned in the preface or in the output. In 1959, the second edition of the book was published, in which the author of the American original was already mentioned in the preface.
If you think that Volkov copied only the first part of the Baum universe, this is not the case, he later drew plot moves from there - for example, in the second book of Baum called “The Wonderful Country of Oz”, the terrifying army of evil girls overthrew the Emerald City by the command of a female general named Ginger, who later became good and kind — it is not difficult to see the motifs of the Volkov "Uorfina Juus and his wooden soldiers" here.
Interestingly, the remaining books of Volkov (in addition to the cycle "Emerald City) remained unknown, and you can judge about their plots and quality by the names - the poems" Red Army "," Ballad of the Soviet Pilot "," Young Partisans "and" Motherland ", songs "Campaign Komsomol" and "Song of Timurovtsy", radio plays "Leader goes to the front", "Patriots" and"Sweatshirt"and also “How to fish with a fishing rod. Fisherman’s notes” (announced as a popular science book).
3"The Adventures of Dunno", 1954 and "The Adventures of Forest Men", 1913.
Now for the less well-known examples of plagiarism) Do you like books about Dunno and his friends? These characters have a very curious appearance story - in 1952 Nikolay Nosov visited Minsk on the anniversary of Yakub Kolas, where he told the Ukrainian writer Bogdan Chaly about the idea of "Dunno" - which he decided to write on the basis of the characters of Anna Khvolson in 1889. Anna, in turn, borrowed her characters from Canadian artist and writer Palmer Cox, whose comics came out in the 1880s.
It was Palmer Cox who invented Dunno. This writer has a whole cycle about the little men who live in the forest and go in search of adventure - in the comic book “Amazing Adventures of Forest Men” they are just like the heroes of Nosov, they fly to travel on a homemade balloon. True, it should be added here that, unlike Tolstoy and Volkov, Nosov still managed to produce an entirely independent work with his own plot - in fact, he borrowed only the names of the characters and a couple of story moves.
Interestingly -Palmer Cox came up with another favorite of Soviet children - Murzilka, it was by this name that one of his heroes was called in the pre-revolutionary Russian-language edition Chvolson. True, the hero of Cox is very different from the Soviet Murzilki (pioneer, journalist and photographer), Cox is a smart snob who somewhat dismissively communicates with other heroes of the book and tries not to mess his white gloves.
04. "The Old Man Hottabych", 1938 and the "Copper Jug", 1900.
Also not too well-known example of "soft plagiarism", which can be called the borrowing of some plot moves - the famous fairy tale about Hottabych, written by Lazar Lagin in the 1930s, strongly echoes the book of the English book by F.Ensty called "The Copper Jug", which released in the 1900th year.
What is the book "The Copper Jug"? A certain young man finds an old copper jug and lets out a genie, who is completely unfamiliar with the realities of modern life after a thousand-year imprisonment. Jinn Fakrash, trying to benefit his liberator, commits many curious acts that only give problems to the liberator.Nothing like)? In the same way as Hottabych, Fakrash absolutely does not understand the operation of modern mechanisms and factories - considering that they contain genies. As you can see, the plots are very similar.
Lazar Lagin transferred the actions to the USSR, introduced the ideological component - the pioneer Volka does not accept the genie’s gifts because of “contempt for private property” and constantly tells him about the benefits of life in the USSR, and the books have different endings - Fakrash returns to the bottle, and Hottabych remains to live in our days as an ordinary citizen.
"Hottabych" withstood several reprints - in 1953 there was a "struggle against cosmopolitanism" at its height, and the book added extremely harsh attacks on the United States, the postcolonial authorities of India, and so on. Two years later, in the new edition, the edits were removed, but instead they added new ones — the heroes of the book flew from Moscow under the rule of the capitalists on the carpet-plane, and immediately began to suffer unbearably.
They write that Lazar Lagin himself did not touch the text of the book after the very first version was released, and it was not clear who made the changes.
05. "Doctor Aibolit", 1929 and "Doctor Dolittle", 1920.
For a snack, my favorite cocktail cherry on the cake - the well-known good doctor Aybolit was almost written off with Dr. Doolittle, books about which were published ten years earlier.
The writer Hugh Lofting invented his good doctor, sitting in the trenches of the First World War - as a kind of alternative to the terrible surrounding reality. Dr. Doolittle (from the English do-little, "do little") lives in a fictional town, heals animals and can speak their languages, Doolittle has several close animals among animals - the piglet Ga-Gab, the Jeep dog, the duck Dub-Dub , monkey Chi-Chi and Tianitolkai.
Later, Doolittle travels to Africa to help sick monkeys, his ship suffers shipwreck, and he is captured by the king of the king Jolidzhinkii and undergoes many adventures, but in the end rescues sick animals from emidemia.
Korney Chukovsky argued that Tsemach Shabad, a well-known Jewish doctor and public figure from Vilnius, became the prototype of Aibolit, but it is not difficult to see how similar the subjects and heroes of Chukovsky are and the heroes of Hugh Loftting — even Barmaley was copied from the African villain king.
As you can see, even the plots of many famous children's books inthe USSRwere stolen. Against this background, the honest act of Boris Zakhoder stands out - he told the Soviet children stories about Winnie the Pooh, honestly pointing out the author - Alan Alexander Milne.
Write in the comments what you think about this.