Vowel. Signs and functions in the language
The existing classification of speech sounds and their correspondence to letters are subject to strict rules. The ability to distinguish the spoken sounds, to correlate them with a certain group is the basis for learning to read and competent writing.
Sounds and letters
At the very beginning of learning the secrets of a language, it is necessary to learn to clearly distinguish sounds from letters. Argued that it is quite easy to do. But experience shows that the question causes great difficulties not only among younger students, but also graduates of educational institutions. To solve the problem requires special knowledge.
This is due to the fact that in Russian the number of sounds and letters does not match. One letter can call different sounds. In other cases, the same sound is indicated by different letters. This phenomenon applies to all sounds of the language, but vowels and sounds require special attention.
A letter is a sign with which you can record spoken sounds on a letter. They are perceived by the organs of sight.The number of letters in modern Russian is unchanged and is 33 characters.
Sound is an indivisible unit of speech. It is formed by the work of the speech apparatus. The perception of sounds is carried out by the organs of hearing.
It is much more difficult to answer the question about the quantitative composition of speech sounds. Modern linguistic scientists still have not come to a common opinion on this matter. However, the statement that oral speech appeared much earlier than written, no one doubts.
Signs of vowels
In comparative quantitative characterization with consonants, vowels and sounds in the Russian language are in the minority - there are, respectively, ten (a, i, o, e, y, u, e, e, u, y) and six (a, o, u, u, u, s). The source of vowel sounds is the voice with the complete absence of noise - this is their first and most important feature.
The second feature is that when a vowel is pronounced, a stream of air emerges from the larynx and mouth cavity freely, without encountering any obstacles. Her movement does not interfere with her teeth, lips, tongue.
Vowel sound and letter. Their functions in speech
The most important function of vowels and letters in a language is syllabic.Counting the syllables in a word must begin with determining the number of vowels in it. The syllable can only include a vowel or vowel in combination with consonants. Other syllable composition in the Russian language does not exist. The presence of two or more vowels in one syllable is unacceptable.
Just like consonants, vowels themselves do not carry a meaning in the word. They are intended to form or distinguish between morphemes, whole words.
The vowel sound in a position after a consonant indicates the nature of its pronunciation. Depending on which vowel followed by a consonant, it may sound hard or soft.
The letters e, e, u, i, and are special vowels. Soft sounds in words appear due to the work of the listed letters and b. They indicate that the previous consonant should sound soft (flame, village, flight, risk).
The opposite group consists of other vowels. Solid sounds in the sounding speech appear next to the vowels a, o, y, s, e. They give a "command" to the previous consonant, and he begins to sound firmly (table, meadow, baby, peer).
Answering the question of how many vowel sounds are in Russian, you need to remember letters such as I, e, e, y. There are certain features of the use of these letters.Their pronunciation, sound, depends on the function they are called to perform in a specific word.
First, vowels can denote two sounds if they occupy a position:
- at the beginning of the word (pit, whirlpool, tree, hedgehogs);
- after the vowel (my, beautiful);
- after dividing signs (announcement, blizzard).
Secondly, the iotated vowels can denote one of the vowel sounds (a, y, o, e) and the softness of the preceding consonant (all, gently, love).
Thirdly, the letters e, e, u, standing after unpaired in hardness-softness of consonants, denote vowels (e, o, y) without affecting the characteristics of the sound standing ahead (parachute, six, silk).
Vowels under stress
No matter how many vowels there are in a word, only one can be percussion. In Russian, six vowel sounds are under the stress, but they are indicated by ten letters.
Soundacan form lettersand I(small, crumpled).
To soundaboutin different cases there are lettersoh yo(ox led).
To indicate soundatletters are usedy, y(storm, iron).
Soundsmay be indicated by letterss, and(washed, tire).
Letterandalways corresponds to the soundand(drank, poured).
Sounduhdenoted by lettersuh(mayor, shore).
Unstressed vowel position
The pronunciation of the unstressed syllable is significantly different from the stressed one. This is due to the work of the organs of speech, which at this moment do not produce large muscular tension. As a result, the vowel sound in an unstressed position sounds more briefly, with a different timbre.
In Russian, in unstressed syllables, only four vowel sounds are distinguished - and, a, v, s, which are denoted by all ten letters. The same unaccented sound can be denoted by different letters. This explains the difficulties associated with writing unstressed vowels in various parts of the word.
Thus, the unstressed vowel in a word is a signal of the presence of a spelling in it. They are divided into several categories:
- with alternations.
For the correct spelling of a word, it is important to determine which of the listed categories the unstressed vowel belongs to, and in accordance with this, choose an algorithm of actions.