Weekend - what is it?
What is a weekend, even a child can easily answer. These are the days when people do not work and do not study. Usually - Saturday and Sunday. But has it always been like that? The usual days of the week have a rich history.
In English, it is customary to call the weekend weekend - that is, the end of the week. After all, the week starts on Monday.
Not a man for the Sabbath ...
According to the Bible, the Sabbath, as a day of rest, has existed not only since the times of the ancient Jews, but has been leading its history since the creation of the world! What could be more ancient! Creating the world, God worked for six days, and rested on the seventh. In honor of this, in the commandments of Moses it is stated that on the seventh day of the week there is no need to work, and he is fully dedicated to God. The Sabbath of the Jews is called Shabbat, and it is not so easy to observe it. Normal day off? It was not there. It is forbidden in Israel to faithful Jews even to push the buttons of the elevator, so special elevators open their doors on each floor of the building. Such a petty formalism greatly resented Christ, so He, as if deliberately provoking the pedantic Pharisees, he healed people twice on the Sabbath.It was then that the famous phrase appeared: “Not a man for the Sabbath, but a Sabbath for a man”, because traditions and rules were created for the benefit of people, and not to become a value in themselves.
Sunday and Sunday
It is known about the resurrection of Christ that His Body was not found on the spot on the day following the Sabbath. In honor of this event, the day of the week became known in Russian as Sunday. However, this did not happen immediately, and not in all European languages this is reflected. For example, in English Sunday - the day dedicated to the sun. This is a legacy of Roman mythology.
But in the whole of European, that is, Christian culture, the day following the Sabbath was recognized as the main weekend, and that day, dedicated to God. For example, the Orthodox have a liturgy on Sunday morning, and church-going people try to visit each one. And thanks to the fact that Sunday was the day freed from labor, in the East Slavic languages it was called the "week." If you think about this word well, it comes from “not doing”. In Ukrainian, this day is still called this day, but in Russian, however, Christian symbolism has shifted.
How was it all?
The history of the weekend in Russia is best traced for a long time. The seven-day week came to us along with Christianity and the Julian calendar. Initially, the day off was exactly Saturday. In 320, Emperor Constantine, in memory of the Resurrection of Christ, made Sunday the seventh and free of labor day.
Sunday for many centuries was the day of visiting the temple. The feudal lords always opposed the introduction of weekends for peasants and servants. In this case, the Church intervened for the working people - people complained that labor offenses did not allow them to attend the temple. For example, in 1699, on the orders of the king, Prince Obolensky was thrown into prison. That's because it made people work on Sundays.
In Soviet times
It would have lived. Even the revolution threw out church holidays from the calendar, replacing it with several days in memory of famous events, but did not touch the week. But in 1929 such an innovation appeared: the country began to live on a five-day week. Different employees had a day off on different days. This ensured the smooth operation of all institutions. On the one hand - it is convenient, on the other - the people were confused and disrupted work. Therefore, the regime has all tightened - the week was extended first to 6, and then to 7 days, and the weekend was left alone.
In March 1967, it was decided to move to a week with five working days and two days off. Weekends in Russia to this day have the same scheme.
Is everyone relaxing on the weekend?
Most institutions work with traditional two days off. Some, usually aimed at serving the population, work round the week. For example, these are public services such as the MFC. Or shops and shopping centers. And as for those who are engaged in entertainment, at the weekend the most income. Most often, if the institution works seven days a week, people have a sliding or shift schedule - they need to rest sometime! And the labor law has not been canceled. A weekend calendar is often not needed by such workers. Sometimes you have to work and on holidays.
Oddly enough, a huge category of people who sometimes work on weekends are students. In the schedule of schoolchildren and students are often study Saturdays. Of course, in this case, the teachers and instructors who teach these subjects work on Saturdays. That study on Sunday is difficult to imagine in public institutions.But all kinds of courses, master classes for students and working people may well be held on this day.
We were lucky that there are weekends and holidays. What makes the word "holiday"? From the word "idle." This suggests that the holidays have always been the days during which they did not work. In tsarist times, church holidays were always celebrated - Christmas, Easter, and not only they. Whole 12 holidays, called the Great 10 and related to the events of the life of the Virgin and Christ. Before and after Easter, Holy Week and Holy Week were introduced for 2 weeks of rest. In addition, the dates associated with the birth and namesake of the heir or accession to the throne of the king became non-business days. When changing the ruling persons, they changed.
In Soviet times, of course, such historical heritage was abandoned. Only the New Year was left, since it was not connected either with religion or with the royal family. This holiday took on the burden that Christmas took and all the Christmas traditions became New Year's. The Bethlehem star reinterpreted, and a red Soviet star began to flaunt on the tree.They introduced the Communists and several of their holidays. Almost to this day survived, as it was sometimes called by the people, “October”, which for some reason turned out to be in November - the anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution after the calendar shift was November 7 (old style it fell on October 25). In 2005, in order not to abandon the holiday at all in November, the Day of Popular Unity was introduced, which moved to 4 November. Some of the holidays introduced during the Soviet era still remain, for example, on February 23 and March 8. In many ways, they lost their original political meaning associated with the Soviet army or the protection of women's rights and began to be perceived as a "male" and "female" day.
And what if the day off suddenly fell on a holiday? Make one day of rest instead of two - the people will be dissatisfied. So they came up with a weekend break. The same is done in the case when there is one worker between non-working days. People get the opportunity to make plans for the resulting mini-holidays, go somewhere. And studies show that the transfer of weekends increases productivity.Like it or not, these days endure. Therefore, weekends and holidays are not as predictable as they seem. Indeed, from year to year, Saturdays and Sundays fall on different dates. Every year, the Government makes a decision on how we rest on weekends this year based on convenience for the population and economic benefits. On the upcoming May holidays there are two such transpositions. First, Saturday April 28th will be working, but the weekend will jump to April 30th. Secondly, on May 2 it turns out to be non-working due to the fact that the weekend fell on the winter holidays. These two days were far away scattered around the calendar, and one of them was in May. Thanks to this transfer, summer residents can safely open the season and leave for the whole 4 days.
In March of this year, we were just as lucky. The weekend postponed from January 6 was “inserted” between Thursday - March 8 and regular weekends, also forming a short 4-day “vacation”.
Another weekend transfer is waiting for us in the summer - we will have to work on Saturday, June 9, but then we will have 3 weekends in a row, which will end with the Day of Russia.
In addition, at the very end of the year there will be a working Saturday of December 29, but the weekend will be postponed to December 31, so that the holidays begin already with the New Year holidays.
To be aware of when to work, and when to rest, there is a holiday calendar.