What is the polar circle? And what about the terms?
To many, the polar circle is represented as some kind of distant border, beyond which there are eternally snowy harsh edges, where frost always blows and strong winds blow. What is this "circle", and how does it look?
What is the polar circle?
These are imaginary lines on the surface of the Earth, lying at a latitude of 66'33 "north and south of the equator - a conditional border, behind which natural phenomena such as polar day and night can be observed. Night lasts from 1 day on the latitude of the circles themselves ( North and South) to 176 - actually at the poles (North and South).
During the polar night, the sun does not rise above the horizon at all. In the Northern Hemisphere at a latitude of a circle, the period of the night begins from December 22.
Polar day is a time when the sun does not go beyond the horizon. Moreover, the closer the territory is to the pole, the longer this period. At the latitude of the border itself, it lasts 24 hours, and at the pole - 189 days.For example, at the latitude of Murmansk, the night can last 40 days, and the day - 61.
In the Northern Hemisphere, at the latitude of the Arctic Circle itself, this day begins in June, from the 22nd. A similar phenomenon occurs in parallel in the southern hemisphere, but in the other half of the year.
How is the earth moving? A little about the distribution of light and heat
The motion of the earth occurs in orbit around the sun. In addition, it rotates around its axis, which is at an angle to the plane of the orbit of motion. When the Earth is located on one side of this orbit, the Northern Hemisphere is illuminated by sunlight more than the Southern.
Thus, at this time in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively, summer and winter. And in the opposite case (Earth on the other side of the orbit), on the contrary - winter and summer.
The sun gives energy to all processes that occur on planet Earth. Naturally, when the sun is high above the horizon, the light falls almost vertically on the surface of the planet and, of course, heats it more. When the sun is located low above the horizon, the rays only glide over the surface of the earth, warming it less. Therefore, there is a division into thermal belts.
Territories located on both sides of the equator receive most of the light and heat. Almost all year round, the sun here is constantly located high above the horizon, while it strongly heats the land and the ocean. This part of the land is called the tropical belt because it is located between the tropics (North and South).
At the poles of the Earth, on the contrary, the whole year is cold. Even in summer, the sun is located here quite low above the horizon. These areas are called the North and South polar zones of the Earth. Between the tropical and polar zones are temperate, which are respectively limited to the northern and southern tropics and the same polar circles.
Arctic Circle of the Northern Hemisphere
The Northern, as well as the Southern Circle is one of the 5 main geographical parallels marked on the geographical map of the planet. The Arctic Circle, whose latitude is 66 ° 33'44 '', is located in the north side of the equator. And the region north of this circle is the Arctic. To the south of it is a belt of temperate climate (northern).
The Arctic Circle itself is the southern boundary of the territory where there are polar days.
Few people live in territories in those places due to the harsh climate and extremely harsh conditions.
Nevertheless, the Arctic Circle of Russia has on its territory three major cities with a considerable number of people: Murmansk, Norilsk and Vorkuta. Also here is the 4th by the number of inhabitants the city of Tromsø (Norway).
Geography of the Arctic Circle
In Alaska, on the side of the Dalton Highway, there is a sign indicating the location of the Arctic Circle on the planet. It stretches across the ocean (North Arctic), the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, North America and Greenland.
By land, this conditional border passes through the territories of eight countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, the USA (Alaska), Canada, Denmark (Greenland) and Iceland.
The Arctic Circle of Russia represents the territory of the Arctic Circle below (the cities listed above).
The Arctic Circle, whose latitude is 66 ° 33'44 '' to the south from the equator, is a parallel, similar to the north, located in the opposite hemisphere of the planet. This is also one of the five geographical main parallels of the geographical map of the Earth.
Antarctica is located at the very south of the Arctic Circle. To the north extends the southern belt of temperate climate. The southern polar circle itself represents the northern boundary of the region of polar days and nights.
Behind this polar circle there are no indigenous people at all due to the difficult climate of Antarctica. There is a population that works at various scientific stations of this continent.
Antarctica and the Arctic, features
These geographical areas have some differences:
- Antarctica - a continent washed from all sides by the waters of the seas and oceans.
- The Arctic is an ocean under eternal glaciers, surrounded on all sides by land.
- For the first time people landed on the coast of Antarctica only two hundred years ago, it was never inhabited by people.
- On the territory of the Arctic people have been living for about four centuries.
- Numerous animals live in Antarctica (a huge number of polar birds, walrus, polar bears and musk oxen), and in the Arctic - a large number of birds and marine mammals (large colonies of penguins, albatrosses, sea lions).
- It is better to travel to the Arctic from June to September, and to Antarctica from October to March.
- At any time of the year in the polar regions you can see the abundance of snow and the majestic icebergs of the most amazing forms.
Residents of the Polar region have to do without sunlight in December-January, and in the summer (in June) you can not turn on the lighting in the houses.
The polar sun warms rather weakly. In this regard, the summer in these parts is cold and very short.