Why did the USSR collapse?
The other day I read several articles about the causes of decaythe USSR- in my opinion, their authors think somehow finely, focusing solely on economic problems - they say there was a shortage and so on, because of the lack of high-quality women's boots and audio players, the Soviet Union collapsed.
Personally, it seems to me that the reasons for the collapse of the USSR are not at all in the economy. Or rather, not only in it alone. As correctly noted in conventional aphorism - the Stone Age ended not at all because the world ended in stones. About the same happened to the USSR - its ideological component simply developed its resource, and people simply outgrew Soviet dogmas.
So, in today's post - a story about the most important reasons for the collapse of the USSR, as well as the question.
1. The collapse of the Soviet ideology.
Paradoxically, it sounds, but the collapse of the Soviet system was initially incorporated in its dogmatic mythology. As various researchers of the Soviet system, such as Sam Harris, Karl Popper, or Bertrand Russell, correctly noted, the Soviet system in the USSR bore features of religion — there were “prophets” like Karl Marx, “messiahs” like Lenin and their students, “apostles”.All people loyal to the system should end up in the analogue of “paradise” - communism, on the way to which it is necessary to destroy a lot of enemies (“infidels”). The Soviet system had dogmas (which declared the only true point of view on certain events), for which it was considered a crime to transgress.
In the 1920s and 30s, among the illiterate peasants and workers, such a system had the appearance of "scientific". In addition, it resembled religious dogmas and commandments, which were taught to live in pre-revolutionary schools, so that there was no contradiction here. But by the 1960s and 1970s, a new generation had grown up with a much wider outlook, which had begun to question Soviet dogma. As a result, in the 1970s, Soviet ideology first descended on jokes, in the 1980s - on critical articles, and by the year 1985 no one believed that there would come some kind of “communism” where everything would be free.
Simply put - people understood that these were all fairy tales for the workers and peasants of the 1920s - stories about the world of the future, where there will be free food and clothes.
2. Comparison with the standard of living in the West.
If in the 1940s and 50s almost all information about life outside the USSR was inaccessible to the majority of citizens, by the 1970s and 80s, with the growth of globalization and the spread of radio and television,information has become more accessible, the opportunity to compare. In general, intelligent and hard-working Soviet engineers, doctors, workers saw that their colleagues in the "decaying West" live much more decently than they did in the USSR.
So, for example, an ordinary worker in the USA could afford a decent house with furniture, a personal car and foreign travel, while the Soviet worker at best was huddled with his family in a two-room, lived from paycheck to paycheck, and of all the entertainment he had hockey on tv yes beer / vodka with friends.
In general, not least the collapse of the USSR was influenced precisely by such a comparison - "we built, built, and built something wrong."
3. Acceptance of universal values.
For some reason, researchers do not write about the collapse of the USSR, but as for me - this was one of the main reasons for the collapse of the entire Soviet system.
If we analyze the Soviet works of art of the 1920s and 1940s, it turns out that most of them were full of Soviet pathos and permeated through and through with Soviet ideology, militancy and militarism. At one time, I re-read the complete works of Arkady Gaidar (one of the blacksmiths of Soviet identity), so that there is no work — something necessarily military and Soviet.Spies, armored trains, cavalry attacks, machine guns, military secrets, etc. - "there is a fire, there are traces in the snow, and now the bourgeois regiments, striking the copper drum, go to war from distant countries."
However, by the 1970s – 1980s, the situation changed dramatically. No one except the elderly “Stalin falcons” wrote seriously about armored trains and “heroes of the civil war”; other topics, humanistic and universal, began to be raised in culture. The same famous Soviet cartoons of the 1970s and 80s are in fact no “Soviet” ones, because, with rare exception, there is not a word about the Soviet ideology, but simply stories that we all live in one big world. and we have similar desires and aspirations. Kotu Leopold, in order to be kind, does not need to sign up for the party at all. Little Raccoon, who smiled at his reflection in the lake, should not know at all about who Lenin is, and in order to be happy, one does not need to learn the tenets of Marxism-Leninism in order to be happy.
In general, the further - the more people began to look at the 1917 coup as something far, ambiguous and not directly related to their lives.
four.The arrival of the information society.
The Soviet dictatorship of the 1920-1950s was kept on the information deficit. Citizens in the USSR were, in fact, cut off from independent sources of information, and they learned about all the events taking place in the world from the pages of Soviet newspapers and from the mouths of Soviet sources, all representing "in the light of Marxism-Leninism."
However, over time, such an information blockade has become increasingly difficult to organize. Soviet citizens began to travel abroad and bring stories about how things really are there. A lot of radio stations began to appear with a non-Soviet interpretation of certain events in the world - which became a powerful alternative to the domatic Soviet media. It added fuel to the fire and the concealment by the Soviet government of the whole truth about the repressions of the 1930s and 50s, about Chernobyl and the war in Afghanistan - the disclosure of real numbers and statistics about these events had the effect of a bombshell.
Actually, the arrival of the information society, where everyone has the right to freely receive, distribute and interpret this or that information, has become one of the main reasons for the collapse of the USSR. The Communist Party, with its “only correct” interpretation of events, became a ridiculous and ridiculous atavism.
Here is a list I have turned out.